Apology for the Jews By Rabbi Manasseh Ben Israel

Apology for the Jews

By Rabbi Manasseh Ben Israel— Manoel Dias Soeiro (1604–November 20, 1657), also known as Menasheh ben Yossef ben Yisrael and the Hebrew acronym, MB”Y. A Portuguese rabbi, kabbalist, scholar, writer, diplomat, printer and publisher, founder of the first Hebrew printing press (Emeth Meerets Titsma`h) in Amsterdam in 1626.


Introduction and Background


There is no evidence of Jews residing in England before the Norman Conquest. William the Conqueror was financed by Jews expelled from Spain, and having secured the benevolent neutrality of Holy Roman emperor Henry IV and with solemn approval by Pope Alexander II, he invaded England in 1066 (Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol # 23, p. 609). He brought 2,600 Jews into England with him from Rouen (William of Malmesbury: Gesta Regum Anglorum, The History of the English Kings, p. 500). They were at first treated with special favour and allowed to amass considerable wealth, “They brought to England their own form of commerce and a system of rules to facilitate and govern it . . .” (Footnote 11: H.C. Richardson, The English Jewry Under Angevin Kings (1960) p. 94). They established the Exchequer and subsequently converted into a class of “royal usurers” so abhorrent to the English that in 1290 Edward I expelled them all, over 16,000 Jews, principally owing to the problem of usury. (See the trilogy of historian Sir Arthur Bryant, JCR-UK – Jewish Communities of the U.K., and jewishencyclopedia.com).

Elizabeth I’s famous scientist, magician, astrologer, and intelligence agent John Dee (1527-1608), publicly introduced the English to Renaissance Christian kabbalism, magic and science with its Jewish/Sufi roots in Venice. Dee invented the fraudulent “British Israel/Christian Identity” doctrine as an explicit justification for the British Empire, and the first public hint of an alliance with Jewish enemies of the Vatican “Anti-Christ.” Dee was the original secret agent 007, and planted Rosicrucianism in Germany on an intelligence gathering trip under occult crystal gazing cover.


Manasseh Ben IsraelFollowing Dee, Mannaseh Ben Israel, a Dutch kabbalist Rabbi under the power of Jewish bankers (Lucien Wolf, “Cromwell’s Secret Intelligencers”), petitioned Cromwell for return of the Jews to England based on his spurious kabbbalistic interpretation of Scripture, called the “ Hope of Israel.” This he advocated, was preliminary to the appearance of the Messiah, who could not appear till Jews existed in all the lands of the earth. He promoted the concept that the British are “the Lost Ten Tribes,” making “Jews” their relatives and deserve re-admittance to England. Having been expelled in 1290, they were readmitted under duress in 1657 (“Life of Menasseh Ben Israel” by Cecil Roth, Jewish Publication Society of America, 1945; “The Inner Government of England”, Vol. 1, p. 275). And Converso Dominican Friar Antonio de Montesinos (Aharon Levi) claimed (ahead of the Mormons) to have discovered the Ten Tribes in among the American Indians in Ecuador, and England was the only country from which Jews were excluded. If England admitted them, the Messianic age might be expected. Confident the Jews will convert to pure, Biblical Christianity, Cromwell’s Puritan advisors believed they should be allowed to return into England.

Financed by Amsterdam Jews, headed by Solomon Medina, William of Orange was placed on the throne of England in 1689 enabling the conspirators to set up the Bank of England and institute the National Debt, securing for the usurers a first charge on the taxes of England for interest on their loans, and the right to coin money was transferred from the Crown to this private “Bank of England.” The same pattern was followed in the establishment of the Jew’s Federal Reserve non-bank in the United States and other central banks tied in with the City of London’s Bank of International Settlements.

Under another name and in a different occupation the International Jews have controlled Britain from that day to this (Genesis 4:14). The so-called British Empire was and is in reality the Empire of the City of London. The United States, Australia and other former colonies remain subservient “to the City,” spilling the blood of their citizens and borrowing at usury to finance Judaeo-Communist takeovers and fight “the City’s” wars of conquest in pursuit of world hegemony. Jewish author Cecil Roth’s “House of Nasi” compares the underground funnelings of Jewry after their expulsion from Spain and Portugal, with the network set up under Hitler a little later. (See History of God’s Holy Bible and the so-called Jews, and Newsletter #342).

In the 19th century the Empire of the City revived the British Israel hoax in the colonies by the conspiracies of Rhodes, Millner, Marx, Herzl and other Rothschild agencies visible in Communism, Zionism, Nazism, the League of Nations, RIIA, CFR, United Nations, World Council of Churches, etc.,—all working toward Lucifer’s totalitarian one world government.

Because most in the general circle of this Message, like the majority of so-called Christians of previous Ages decline to “receive the word [of the Prophet William Branham] with all readiness of mind, and search the Scriptures daily, whether those things were so,” they have not the faintest notion of The Bible Distinction between “The House of Israel” and “The House of Judah” by F. F. Bosworth, with added commentary. Neither did English traitor Oliver Cromwell, whose revolution in 1647, financed by Manasseh Ben Israel and Moses Carvajal of Amsterdam, allowed Jews to return to England, though the order of banishment was not rescinded by Parliament. History proves that the objective of the International Jewish money lenders was to obtain control of England’s economy and government, laying the foundation for The Empire of the City of London,” whose ‘hidden hand’ rules your land as it rules my land, whether you live in China, Russia, the (once) Christian West or in one of the developing nations.

This is the Petition (rather flattering subterfuge) of Manasseh Ben Israel appealing to the pecuniary instincts of pseudo-Christian Oliver Cromwell:

To His Highnesse The Lord Protector of the Common-Wealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland. The Humble Addresses of Menasseh Ben Israel, A Divine and Doctor of Physick, in Behalf of The Iewish Nation.

Give me leave, at such a juncture of time, to speak to your Highnesse, in a style and manner fitting to us Iewes and our condition. It is a thing most certaine, that the great God of Israel, Creator of Heaven and Earth, doth give and take away Dominions and Empires, according to his owne pleasure; exalting some, and overthrowing others: who, seeing he hath the hearts of Kings in his hand, he easily moves them whithersoever himselfe pleaseth, to put in execution his Divine Commands. This, my Lord, appears most evidently out of those words of Daniel [2:21; 4:17], where he, rendering thanks unto God, for revealing unto him that prodigious dreame of Nebuchadnezar, doth say: “Thou that removest Kings, and sets up Kings.” And else-where, “To the end the living might know, that the Highest hath dominion in Mans Kingdome, and giveth the same to whom he please.” Of the very same minde are the Thalmudists likewise, affirming that a good Government, or Governor, is a Heavenly Gift; and that there is no Governor, but is first called by God unto that dignity: and this they prove from that passage of Exodus [31:2]: Behold I have called Bazale’l by name,” &c., all things being governed by Divine Providence, God dispensing rewards unto Vertues, and punishment unto Vices, according to his owne good Will. This the Examples of great Monarchs make good; especially of such, who have afflicted the people of Israel: For none hath ever afflicted them, who hath not been by some ominous Exit, most heavily punished of God Almighty; as is manifest from the Histories of those Kings, Pharaoh, Nebuchadnezar, Antiochus Epiphanies, Pompey, and others. And on the contrary, none ever was a Benefactor to that people, and cherished them in their Countries, who thereupon hath not presently begun very much to flourish. In so much that the Oracle [Genesis 12:3] to Abraham (“I will blesse then that blesse thee, and curse them that curse thee”) seemeth yet daily to have its accomplishment. Hence I, one of the least among the Hebrews, since by experience I have found, that through Gods great bounty toward us, many considerable and eminent persons both for Piety and Power, are moved with sincere and inward pitty and compassion towards us, and do comfort us concerning the approaching deliverance of Israel, could not but for myself, and in the behalf of my Countrey men, make this my humble addresse to your Highness, and beseech you for Gods sake, that ye would, according to that Piety and Power wherein you are eminent beyond others, vouchsafe to grant, that the Great and Glorious Name of the Lord our God may be extolled, and solemnly worshipped and praised by us through all the bounds of this Common-wealth; and to grant us place in your Countrey, that we may have our Synagogues, and free exercise of our Religion. I nothing doubting, but that your Clemency will easily grant this most equitable Petition of ours. Pagans have of old, out of reverence to the God of Israel; and the esteem they had to his people, granted most willingly free liberty, even to apostated Iewes; as Onias the High Priest, to build another Temple in their Countrey, like unto that at Jerusalem: how much more then may we, that are not Apostate or runagate Iewes, hope it from your Highnesse and your Christian Council, since you have so great knowledge of, and adore the same one onely God of Israel, together with us. Besides, it increases our confidence of your bounty towards us, in that so soon as ever the rumour of that most wished-for liberty, that ye were a thinking to grant us, was made known unto our Countrey-men; I, in the name of my Nation, the Iewes, That live in Holland, did congratulate and entertaine their Excellencies, the Ambassadors of England; who were received in our Synagogue with as great pomp and applause, Hymns and cheerfulnesse of minde, as ever any Soveraigne Prince was. For our people did in their owns mindes presage, that the Kingly Government being now changed into that of a Common-wealth, the antient hatred towards them, would also be changed into good-will: that those rigorous Laws (if any there be yet extant, made under the Kings) against so innocent a people, would happily be repealed. So that we hope now for better from your gentleness and goodness, since, from the beginning of your Government of this Common-wealth, your Highnesse hath professed much respect, and favour towards us. Wherefore I humbly entreat your Highnesse, that you would with a gracious eye have regard unto us, and our Petition, and grant unto us, as you have done unto others, free exercise of our Religion, that we may have our Synagogues, and keep our own publick worship, as our brethren doe in Italy, Germany, Poland, and many other places, and we shall pray for the happinesse and Peace of this your much renowned and puissant Common-wealth.




Having some years since often perceived that in this Nation, God hath a People, that is very tender hearted, and well-wishing to our sore-afflicted Nation; Yea, I my selfe having some Experience thereof, in divers Eminent persons, excelling both in Piety and Learning: I thought with my-self, I should do no small service to my owne Nation, as also to the People and Inhabitants of this Common-wealth, if by humble addresses to the late Honourable Parliament, I might obtaine a safe-Conduct once to transport my selfe thither. Which I having done, and according to my desire, received a most kinde and satisfactory Answer, I now am come. And to the end all Men may know the true Motives and Intent of this my coming, I shall briefly comprehend and deliver them in these particulars.

First and formost, my Intention is to try, if by Gods good hand over me, I may obtaine here for my Nation the Liberty of a free and publick Synagogue, wherein we may daily call upon the Lord our God, that once he may be pleased to remember his Mercies and Promises done to our Fore fathers, forgiving our trespasses, and restoring us once againe into our fathers Inheritance; and besides to sue also for a blessing upon this Nation, and People of England, for receiving us into their bosoms, and comforting Sion in her distresse.

My second Motive is, because the opinion of many Christians and mine doe concurre herein, that we both believe that the restoring time of our Nation into their Native Countrey, is very neer at hand; I believing more particularly, that this restauration cannot be, before these words of Daniel, Chap. 12. ver. 7. be first accomplished, when he saith, “And when the dispersion of the Holy people shall be compleated in all places, then shall all these things be compleated:” signifying therewith, that before all be fulfilled, the People of God must be first dispersed into all places and Countreyes of the World [Subterfuge]. Now we know, how our Nation at the present is spread all about, and hath its seat and dwelling in the most flourishing parts of all the Kingdomes, and Countreys of the World, as well in America, as in the other three parts thereof; except onely in this considerable and mighty Island. And therefore this remains onely in my judgement, before the Messia come and restore our ration, that first we must have our seat here likewise.

My third Motive is grounded on the profit that I conceive this Common-wealth is to reap, if it shall vouchsafe to receive us; for thence, I hope, there will follow a great blessing from God upon them, and a very abundant trading into, and from all parts of the World, not onely without prejudice to the English Nation, but for their profit, both in Importation, and Exportation of goods. Yet if any shall doubt hereof, I trust their Charity towards the people of God, will satisfie them, especially when they shall reade the ensuing Treatise.

The fourth Motive of my coming hither, is, my sincere affection to this Common-wealth, by reason of so many Worthy, Learned, and Pious men in this Nation, whose loving kindnesse and Piety I have experience of: hoping to finde the like affection in all the People generally; the more, because I alwayes have, both by writing and deeds, professed much inclination to this Common-wealth; and that I perswade my selfe they will be mindfull of that Command of the Lord Our God, who so highly recommends unto all men the love of strangers; much more to those that professe their good affection to them. For this I desire all may be confident of, that I am not come to make any disturbance, or to move any disputes about matters of Religion; but onely to live with my Nation in the fear of the Lord, under the shadow of your protection, whiles we expect with you the hope of Israel to be revealed.


How Profitable the Nation of the Iewes Are


Three things, if it please your Highnesse, there are that make a strange Nation wel-beloved amongst the Natives of a land where they dwell: (as the defect of those three things make them hatefull,) viz. profit, they may receive from them; Fidelity they hold towards their Princes, and the Noblenes and purity of their blood. Now when I shall have made good, that all these three things are found in the Iewish Nation, I shall certainly persuade your Highnesse, that with a favorable eye, (Monarchy being changed into a Republicq) you shall be pleased to receive again the Nation of the Iews, who in time past lived in that Island: but, I know not by what false Informations, were cruelly handled and banished.

Profit is a most powerful motive, and which all the World preferres before all other things: and therefore we shall handle that point first.

It is a thing confirmed, that merchandizing is, as it were, the proper profession of the Nation of the Iews. I attribute this in the first place, to the particular Providence and mercy of God towards his people: for having banished them from their own Country, yet not from his Protection, he hath given them, as it were, a natural instinct, by which they might not onely gain what was necessary for their need, but that they should also thrive in Riches and possessions; whereby they should not onely become gracious to their Princes and Lords, but that they should be invited by others to come and dwell in their Lands.

Moreover, it cannot be denyed, but that necessity stirrs up a man’s ability and industry; and that it gives him great incitement, by all means to trie the favour of Providence.

Besides, seeing it is no wisedome for them to endeavour the gaining of Lands and other immovable goods, and so to imprison their possessions here, where their persons are subject to so many casualties, banishments and peregrinations; they are forced to use marchandizing untill that time, when they shall returne to their own Country, that then as God hath promised by the Prophet Zachary [14:21], “Their shall be found no more any marchant amongst them in the House of the Lord”.

From that very thing we have said, there riseth an infallible Profit, commodity and gain to all those Princes in whose Lands they dwell above all other strange Nations whatsoever, as experience by divers Reasons doth confirme.

I   The Iewes, have no opportunity to live in their own Country, to till the Lands or other like employments, give themselves wholy unto merchandizing, and for contriving new Inventions, no Nation almost going beyond them. And so ‘tis observed, that wheresoever they go to dwell, there presently the Traficq begins to florish. Which may be seen in divers places, especially in Ligorne, which having been but a very ignoble and inconsiderable City, is at this time, by the great concourse of people, one of the most famous places of Trafique of whole Italy.

Furthermore, the Inventor of the famous Scala de Spalatro (the most firme and solid Traficq of Venice) was a Iew, who by this his Invention transported the Negotiation from a great part of the Levant into that City.

Even that very same is seene likewise at this day in Nizza and in other innumerable places more, both in Europe and Asia.

II   The Nation of the Iews is dispersed throughout the whole World, it being a chastisement that God hath layd upon them for their Idolatries, Deuteronomy 28:69, Ezechiel 20:23, Nehemiah 1:8, Psalm 107:27, and by other their sinnes their families suffer the same shipwrack.

Now in this dispersion our Fore-fathers flying from the Spanish Inquisition, some of them came in Holland, others got into Italy, and others betook themselves into Asia; and so easily they credit one another; and by that meanes they draw the Negotiation where-ever they are, where with all of them marchandizing and having perfect knowledge of all the kinds of Moneys, Diamants, Cochinil, Indigo, Wines, Oyle, and other Commodities, that serve from place to place; especially holding correspondence with their friends and kinds-folk, whose language they understand; they do abundantly enrich the Lands and Countrys of strangers, where they live, not onely with what is requisite and necessary for the life of man; but also what may serve for ornament to his civill condition. Of which Traficq, there ariseth ordinarily Five important benefits.


  • The augmentation of the Public Tolls and Customes, at their coming and going out of the place.
  • The transporting and bringing in of merchandises from remote Countries.
  • The affording of Materials in great plenty for all Mechaniqs; as Wooll, Leather, Wines; Iewels, as Diamants, Pearles, and such like Merchandise.
  • The venting and exportation of so many kinds of Manifactures.
  • The Commerce and reciprocall Negotiation at Sea, which is the ground of Peace between neighbour Nations, and of great profit to their own Fellow-citizens.

III   This reason is the more strengthened, when we see, that not onely the Iewish Nation dwelling in Holland and Italy trafficqs with their own stock, but also with the riches of many others of their own Nation, friends, kinds-men and acquaintance, which notwithstanding live in Spaine, and send unto them their moneys and goods, which they hold in their hands, and content themselves with a very small portion of their estate, to the end they may be secure and free from danger that might happen unto them, in case they should fall under the yoke of the Inquisition; whence not onely their goods, but oftentimes also their lives are endangered.

IV   The love that men ordinarily beare to their own Country and the desire they have to end their lives, where they had their beginning, is the cause, that most strangers having gotten riches where they are in a forain land, are commonly taken in a desire to returne to their native soil, and there peaceably to enjoy their estate; so that as they were a help to the places where they lived, and negotiated while they remained there; so when they depart from thence, they carry all away, and spoile them of their wealth: transporting all into their own native Country: But with the Iewes the case is farre different; for where the Iewes are once kindly receaved, they make a firm resolution never to depart from thence, seeing they have no proper place of their own: and so they are alwayes with their goods in the Cities where they live, a perpetuall benefit to all payments. Which reasons do clearly proove, that it being the property of Cittizens in populous and rich countries, to seeke their rest and ease with buying lands and faire possession of which they live; many of them hating commerce, aspire to Titles and Dignities: therefore of all strangers, in whose hands ordinarily Trafique is found, there are none so profitable and beneficiall to the place where they trade and live, as is the Nation of the Iewes. And seeing amongst the people of Europ, the chiefest riches they possesse, som from Spain, those neighbour Nations, where the Iews shall finde liberty to live according to their own Iudaicall Laws, they shall most easily draw that benefit to themselves by means of the industry of our Nation, and their mutuall correspondence.

From hence (if it please your Highnes) it results, that the Iewish Nation, though scattered through the whole World, are not therefore a despisable people, but as a Plant worthy to be planted in the whole world, and received into Populous Cities: who ought to plant them in those places, which are most secure from danger; being trees of most savory fruit and profit, to be alwayes most favoured with Laws and Priviledges, or Prerogatives, secured and defended by Armes. An Example of this we have in our times. His Majesty, the Illustrious King of Denmark, invited them with speciall Priviledges into Geluckstadt: the Duke of Savoy into Nisa of Provence; and the Duke of Modina in Retio, allowing them such conditions and benefices, as like never were presented unto them by any other Prince; as appeareth by the copy of those Priviledges, which I have in my hands. But supposing it would be a matter of too large extention, if I should make a relation of all the places under whose Princes the Iewes live, I will onely speake briefly of the two Tribes Iudah and Binyamin. These in India in Cochin have 4 Synagogues, one part of these Iewes, being there of a white colour, and three of a tawny; these being most favoured by the King. In the year 1640, dyed Samuel Castoel, Governour of the City, and Agent for the King, and David Castoel his sonne succeeded in his place. In Persia there is a great number of Iewes, and they live indifferent freely: there are also amongst them that are in favour and great respect by the King, and who live there very bravely. Some years past, there was Elhazar Huza, the Viceroy, and now there is David Ian; if yet he be living. In the year 1636 the Saltan Amarat took in Bagdad, and puting all to the sword, he commanded that they should not touch the Iewes, nor their houses, and besides that, he freed them from one half of the tribuit they were wont to pay to the Persian.

But the chiefest place where the Iewes life, is the Turkish Empire, where some of them live in great estate, even in the Court of the Grand Turke at Constantinople, by reason there is no Viceroy, or Governour, or Bassa, which hath not a Iewe to manage his affaires, and to take care for his estate: Hence it cometh that in short time they grow up to be Lords of great revenues, and they most frequently bend the minds of Great ones to most weighty affaires in government.

The greatest Viceroy of whole Europe is the Bassa of Egypt; this Bassa always takes to him, by order of the Kingdome, a Iewe with the title of Zaraf-Bassa (Thresurer) viz. of all the Revenues of that government, who receaves purses full of money, seals them, and then sends them to the King. This man in a short time grows very rich, for that by his hands as being next to the Bassa, the 24 Governments of that Empire are sould and given, and all other businesses managed. At present he that possesseth this place, is called Sr. Abraham Alhula. The number of the Iews living in this Kingdome of the Great Turke, is very great, and amounts to many Millions. In Constantinople alone there are 48 Synagogues, and in Salaminque 36, and more then fourescore thousand soules in the two Cities alone.

The first King gave them great priviledges which they enjoy untill this day: for besides the liberty, they have every-where, of trading with open shops, of bearing any Office and possessing of any goods, both mooveable and immooveable, he yet graunted them power to judge all Civill causes according to their own Laws amongst themselves. Moreover they are exempted from going to Warres, and that souldiers should be quartered in their houses, and that Justice should take no place upon the death of any one that left no heir to his Estate.

In all which they are preferred before the naturall Turks themselves. For which cause they pay in some Cittys to the King three Patacons, and in others two and a half by the pole.

In this estate some of the Iewes have grown to great fortunes; as Joseph Nasino, unto whom Amatus Lusitanus dedicated his fifth and sixth Centuriae, was by Sultan Solime made Duke of Maccia, Earle of Andro, Seignor of Millo, and the seaven Islands: And Jacob Ben-Iaes by Sultan Amurat, was made Governour of the Tiberiades: so likewise others were exalted to very great and Eminent Dignities: as was that Selomo Rose, that was sent for Ambassador at Venice, where he confirmed the last Peace with Amurat. In Germany, there lives also a great multitude of Iews, especially at Prague, Vienna and Franckfurt, very much favoured by the most mild and most gracious Emperours, but despised of the people, being a Nation not very finely garnished by reason of their vile cloathing: yet notwithstanding there is not wanting amongst them persons of great quality. The Emperour Matthias made Noble both Mardochai Mairel, and Ferdinando Jacob Bar Seba.

But yet a greater number of Iewes are found in the Kingdome of Poland, Prussia and Lethuania, under which Monarchy they have the Jurisdiction to judge amongst themselves all causes, both Criminal and Civil; and also great and famous Academies of their own. The chief Cities where the Nation liveth, are Lublin and Cracow, where there is a Iew, called Isaac Iecells, who built a Synagogue, which stood him in one hundred thousand Francs, and is worth many tons of gold. There is in this place such infinite number of Iews; that although the Cosaques in the late warres have killed of them above one hundred and fourescore thousand; yet it is sustained that they are yet at this day as innumerable as those were that came out of Egypt. In that Kingdome the whole Negotiation is in the hand of the Iews, the rest of the Christians are either all Noble-men, or Rustiques and kept as slaves.

In Italy they are generally protected by all the Princes: their principall residence is in the most famous City of Venice; so that in that same City alone they possesse about 1,400 Houses; and are used there with much courtesy and clemency. Many also live in Padoa and Verona; others in Mantua, and also many in Rome itself. Finally they are scattered here and there in the chief places of Italy, and do live there with many speciall priviledges.

In the Government of the great Duke of Tuscany, they are by that Prince most graciously and bountifully dealt with, having power from him graunted, to have their Judicatory by themselves, and to judge in all matters, both Civill and Criminall; besides many other Priviledges, whereof I my self have the Copies in hand. The rich and illustrious families that flourished in these Countries are many, viz. The Thoraces, who being three Brethren, shared betwixt them above 700 thousand Crowns. In Ferrara were the Viles, whose stock was above 200 thousand Crowns. The Lord Joseph de Fano, Marquis de Villependi, was a man much respected of all the Princes in Italy, and was called by them, The Peace-maker and appeaser of all troubles; because he, by his authority and entremise, was used to appease all troubles and strife rising amongst them. Don Daniel Rodrigues, because of his prudency and other good qualities, was sent in the year 1589 from the most Excellent Senat of Venice into Dalmatia, to appease those tumults and scandals given by the Vsquoquibs in Cliffa: which he most manly effected, and caused all the women and children, that were kept cloose prisoners, to be set at liberty, brought also to an happy issue many other things of great moment, for which he was sent. Alphonso II, the Duke of Ferrara, sent also for his Ambassador to the Imperiall Majesty, one Abraham de Bondi, to pay and discharge Investiture of the States of Modena and Reggio. The Prince of Safol and the Marquis of Scandia likewise, had to their Factors men of our Nation.

In the Kingdome of Barbary, their lives also a great number of Iews, who-ever cruelly and basely used by that Barbarous Nation, except at Marrocco, the Court and Kings house, where they have their Naguid or Prince that governs them, and is their Iudge, and is called at this day, Seignor Moseh Palace: and before him was in the same Court, that Noble family Ruthes, that had power and Iurisdiction of all kinde of punishment, onely life and death excepted.

In the Low-Countries also, the Iews are received with great Charity and Benevolency, and especially in this most renowned City of Amsterdam, where there are no lesse then 400 Families; and how great a trading and Negotiation they draw to that City, experience doth sufficiently witness. They have there no lesse then three hundred houses of their own, enjoy a good part of the West and East-Indian Compagnies; and besides have yet to set forth their Trafiq such a stock, that for setting a side, onely one duit of every pound Flemish for all kind of commodities that enter, and again as much for all what goes out of this town, and what besides we pay yearly of the rents we get from the East-Indian Compagnie to the reliefe and sustenance of the poore of our Synagogue, that very money amounts ordinarily every year, unto the summe very neare of 12,000 Franks; whereby you may easely conceive what a mighty stock it is they trade with, and what a profit they needs must bring into this City.

In Hambourg likewise, a most famous City of Holsace in Germany, there lives also a hundred families, protected by the Magistrat, though molested by the people. There resides Sir Duarte Nunes d’Acosta, Resident for his Majesty the King of Portugal: Gabriel Gomes, Agent for his Majesty the king of Danemarck: David de Lima, a Ieweller, for the same his Majesty; and Emanuel Boccaro Rosales, created by the Emperour a Noble-man and a Count Palatin.

In all these places the Iews live (in a manner) all of them Merchants, and that without any prejudice at all to the Natives: For the Natives, and those especially that are most rich, they build themselves houses and Palaces, buy Lands and firme goods, aime at Titles and Dignities, and so seek their rest and contentment that way. But as for the Iews, they aspire at nothing, but to preferre themselves in their way of Marchandize; and so employing their Capitals, they send forth the benefit of their labour amongst many and sundry of the Natives, which they, by the trafick of their Negotiation, do enrich. From whence it’s easy to judge of the profit that Princes and Common-wealths do reap, by giving liberty of Religion to the Iews, and gathering them by some speciall priviledges into their Countries: as Trees that bring forth such excellent fruits.

So that if one Prince, ill advised, driveth them out of his Land yet another invites them to his; & shews them favour: Wherein we may see the prophecy of Iacob fulfilled in the letter: “The staffe shall not depart from Iudah, untill Messias shall come” [Genesis 49:10, Subterfuge]. And this shall suffice concerning the Profit of the Iewish Nation.

How Faithfull the Nation of the Iewes Are

The Fidelity of Vassals and Subjects, is a thing that Princes most esteem off: for there-on, both in Peace and Warre, depends the preservation of their estates. And as for this point, in my opinion, they owe much to the Nation of the Iews, by reason of the faithfulnesse and loyalty they show to all Potentates that receive and protect them in their Countries. For setting aside the Histories of the Ptolomies, Kings of Egypt, who did not trust the Guard of their persons, nor the keeping of their Forts, nor the most important afairs of their Kingdome to any other Nation with greater satisfaction then to the Iews; the Wounds of Antipater shewed to Iulius Caesar in token of his loyalty, and the brasen Tables of our Ancestours amongst the Romans, are evident witnesses enough of their fidelity shewed unto them.

In Spaine the Iews of Burgos; as the Chronicles do declare, most generously shewed the very same fidelity in the times of Don Henrique; who having killed his Brother, the King, Don Pedro de Cruel, made himself Lord of all his Kingdomes, and brought under his obedience all the Grandees and people of Spaine: Only the Iews of Burgos denyed to obey him, and fortified themselves within the City, saying, That God would never have it, that they should deny obedience to their Naturall Lord Don Pedro, or to his rightfull successours. A constancy that the prudent King, Don Henriques, very much esteemed of, saying, that such Vassals as those were, by Kings and great men, worthy of much account, seeing they held greater respect to the fidelity they ought to their King, although conquered and dead, than to the Present fortune of the Conqueror: And a while after, receiving very honourable conditions, they gave themselves over.

In Spain also (as you may see in Mariana) many Iewes for the same fidelity were appointed Governours of the Kingdome, and Tutors of Noble-mens children, jointly to others of the Nobility upon the death of their Parents.

The Chronicles of the Xarifes, dedicated to King Philip the second, King of Spaine, alleagues for an example of great fidelity and vertue, how the rising of the Xarifes against the Morines, their killing and spoyling them of the Kingdome, was such a great grief unto Samuel Alvalensi, one of those banished out of Spaine, and much favoured by the King of Fez, descended from the house of the Morines; that joyning himself with other Magistrates, and subjects of the Morines, arming some ships and going himself Captain over all, he came suddenly with 400. men, and fell by night upon the Army of the Xarifes, that were more then 3,000 men, besieging Copta, and without losing one man, killed of them above 500 and caused there to raise the siege.


1. Daniel 12:7 “And I heard the Man [Jesus Messiah] clothed in linen, which was upon the waters of the river [of Life], when He held up His right hand and His left hand unto heaven, and swore by Him that liveth for ever that it shall be for a time, times, and an half [i.e. the first three and a half years of the tribulation of Daniel’s Seventieth Week: Jeremiah 30:7, “the time of Jacob’s trouble”]; and when He shall have accomplished to scatter the power of the holy people [few so-called Jews are even Semitic and were never a “holy people.” As the sixfold purpose of Gabriel’s visit to Daniel (9:24) is not yet fulfilled; neither is Israel a “holy people” for to this day “Messiah’s blood is upon the them and their children” – Matthew 27:25]. “The holy people” are Israel’s two Hebrew (not Jewish) prophets of Zechariah 4 and Revelation 11 anointed in the Spirit and power of Moses and Elijah. They were not born in the seventeenth cantury but are in Israel today. Their “power” will be “scattered” in martyrdom three and a half years after the end of the Gentile dispensation (Revelation 11:3-12), then “all these things shall be finished”.

You see how the rabbi employed subterfuge in his petition as instructed by the Talmud, to deceive the non-Christian rebel Oliver Cromwell, who had brave King Charles I executed. According to the Babylonian Talmud, Baba Kamma 113a, 113b: “Where a suit arises between an Israelite and a heathen, if you can justify the former according to the laws of Israel, justify him and say: ‘This is our law’; so also if you can justify him by the laws of the heathens justify him and say [to the other party:] ‘This is your law’; but if this can not be done, we use subterfuges to circumvent him” (V. supra, p. 211, n. 6).

2. Again Manasseh Ben Israel employs subterfuge on the foolish non-Christian Oliver Cromwell who allows this Christ-denying Kabbalist rabbi who follows the Talmud—the antithesis of Moses and the prophets—a man who has rejected Messiah’s first Coming almost 1,700 years previously, to lecture on His second physical return which in any event will not transpire until the consummation of Life on earth (Isaiah 13:9; 24:22; Dan 7:12; Malachi 4:1-3; Revelation 20:5). apology.htm

2 Comments on “Apology for the Jews By Rabbi Manasseh Ben Israel


    © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2013 DOI: 10.1163/15700674-12342150
    Medieval Encounters 19 (2013) 493-533 brill.com/me
    Jewish, Christian and Muslim Culture
    Encounters in Confluence and Dialogue
    Ruth Mazo Karras*
    Department of History, University of Minnesota, 1110 Heller Hall,
    271 19th Avenue S., Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    *E-mail: rmk@umn.edu


    Thomas Ebendorfer’s fifteenth-century Latin translation of a Hebrew Toledot Yeshu text is the earliest extant Latin version to include a full narrative from the birth of Jesus to the events following the crucifixion, and predates existing Hebrew versions. After reviewing the place of Ebendorfer’s work in the textual tradition of the Toledot, the article examines carefully the work’s account of the aerial battle between Jesus and Judas, in comparison to other versions.
    Ebendorfer includes the detail of sexual intercourse between the two, which is absent in many later versions. In the context of a discussion of Christian and Jewish attitudes toward male–male sexual activity in the Middle Ages, the article concludes that while this detail was in Ebendorfer’s exemplar, he could have elaborated on it in a way that indicates this was a particularly Christian concern.
    Toledot Yeshu, Thomas Ebendorfer, textual transmission, homosexuality, sodomy, Jesus,
    Raymond Martini, University of Vienna, Christian anti-Judaism, Christian Hebraism

    Jews had a variety of negative things to say about Jesus in the Middle Ages; Christians were aware of this, and blasphemy could be a pretext for persecution.
    Often the nature of the blasphemy was not recorded, either because to repeat it would have been shocking in itself or because it was more effective simply to hint darkly at the horrible things that were said.
    In the first half of the fifteenth century, however, comes the first documentation of a narrative element that appears in later Hebrew sources, that Jesus was raped by Judas Iscariot.
    The story of how and why this claim, which was perhaps the bluntest narrative account of homosexual intercourse in either 494 R. M. Karras / Medieval Encounters 19 (2013) 493-533 tradition in the Middle Ages, appeared, when read in the light of Christian and Jewish attitudes toward male–male sexual activity in the Middle Ages, reveals a new complication in inter-communal relations.
    The year 1420 saw a major pogrom against the Jews of Upper Austria. The underlying causes included ongoing tensions between students at the University of Vienna and other Viennese and the Jews, the fiscal needs of Archduke (later King) Albrecht V, and suspicion of Jewish complicity with the Hussites; the triggering event was an accusation of host desecration against a Jewish couple in Enns. The result was an edict of expulsion against the Jews of Vienna—the Wiener Geserah (Heb. גזרה gezeirah, “disaster, persecution”)—and in 1421 the burning at the stake of somewhere between 110 and 400 Jews. The situation of the Jews remained desperate until after the accession of Frederick III (King from 1440, Emperor from 1458).1
    Sometime during this period, Thomas Ebendorfer, a scholar of the University of Vienna, with the help of a convert from Judaism, compiled a text called the Falsitates Judaeorum, or Lies of the Jews, the major part of which is a translation of a Hebrew text of the Toledot Yeshu. Ebendorfer, born in 1388, was a student at Vienna from 1408, first in the arts faculty, then in theology. From 1428 to 1460 he was Professor of Theology; as a priest he also held several benefices, and he represented the University at the Council of
    Basel (1432-1435) and the king on several diplomatic missions. A number of his political writings survive as well as a Cronica Austrie up to the year 1463.2
    This article is especially concerned with Ebendorfer’s translation of the Toledot Yeshu, because it marks a break with the versions of this text that can be documented to have circulated from late antiquity to the central Middle Ages.
    [1 The fullest account of the events is still Samuel Krauss, Die Wiener Geserah vom Jahre
    1421 (Vienna: Wilhelm Braumüller, 1920). A more current account is given in Shlomo Spitzer, Bne Chet: Die österreichischen Juden im Mittelalter: Eine Social- und Kulturgeschichte (Vienna: Böhlau, 1997), 79-98. For accusations of host desecration see Miri Rubin, Gentile Tales: The Narrative Assault on Late Medieval Jews (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999); this particular case is discussed at pp. 76, 116-119.
    2 On Ebendorfer’s work generally see Alphons Lhotsky, Thomas Ebendorfer: Ein österreichischer Geschichtschreiber, Theologe und Diplomat des 15. Jahrhunderts, Schriften der Monumenta Germaniae historica 15 (Stuttgart: Anton Hiersemann, 1957).
    R. M. Karras / Medieval Encounters 19 (2013) 493-533 495]


    “The Jew of the Old Testament/Talmud is arguably the most unpleasant person to ever roam the earth: jealous and proud of it; a petty, unjust, unforgiving control-freak; a vindictive, bloodthirsty ethnic cleanser; a misogynistic, goyophobic, racist, filicidal, pestilential, megalomaniacal, sadomasochistic, capriciously malevolent bully.”


    ‘You have not begun to appreciate the real depth of our guilt. We are intruders. We are disturbers. We are subverters. We have taken your natural world, your ideals, your destiny, and played havoc with them. We have been at the bottom not merely of the latest great war but nearly all your wars, not only of the Russian but of every other major revolution in your history. We have brought discord and confusion and frustration into your personal and public life. We are still doing it. No one can tell how long we shall go on doing it.’
    ‘A Real Case Against the Jews,’ Marcus Eli Ravage, The Century Magazine, January 1928, Vol. 115, No. 3 pp. 346-350. Part 2 appeared in the following issue, pp.476-483.


    Was the great and revered rabbi Moses Ben Maimon (Maimonides) a racist?
    The Encyclopedia of the Jewish Religion refers to Moses Maimonides, a.k.a. Rambam, as “the symbol of the pure and orthodox faith.” His Guide of the Perplexed is considered the greatest work of Jewish religious philosophy, but his view of Blacks was Hitlerian:
    1. “[T]he Negroes found in the remote South, and those who resemble them from among them that are with us in these climes. The status of those is like that of irrational animals. To my mind they do not have the rank of men, but have among the beings a rank lower than the rank of man but higher than the rank of apes. For they have the external shape and lineaments of a man and a faculty of discernment that is superior to that of the apes.”
    Several Jewish scholars have translated the “Guide,” interpreting the above passage as referring to Black Africans:
    1. Moses Maimonides (1135-1204), The Guide of the Perplexed, translated and edited by Shlomo Pines; with an introductory essay by Leo Strauss (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963), Chapter 51, pp. 618-19. Moses Maimonides, The Guide to the Perplexed, trans. and ed. Shlomo Pines (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1963), 2:618-19. Other translations use the term “cushites” or “blacks” in place of “Negroes.” See M. Friedlander’s translation (1904; reprint, New York: Dover, 1956), 384.
    2. Moses Maimonides (1135-1204), The Guide of the Perplexed; an abridged edition with introduction and commentary by Julius Guttmann; translated from the Arabic; Dalalat al-ha’irin; English; selections by Chaim Rabin; new introduction by Daniel H. Frank (Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 1995), p. 185.
    3. Moses Maimonides (1135-1204), The Guide of the Perplexed, translated from the original and annotated by M. Friedländer (New York: Hebrew Pub. Co., 1881), pp. 279-80. Here the word “Kushites” is used.
    One might also see Essays on Maimonides; An Octocentennial Volume, edited by Salo Wittmayer Baron (New York: Columbia University Press, 1941). Baron is quite explicit about the attitudes of Maimonides on slavery. On page 239, for instance, he writes, “For Maimuni [Maimonides] a slave is not fully human in matters of sex…”


    “If there was a legal case between a Jew and a Gentile (non-Jew), then the manner of judging between them is as I will explain: if we [i.e., a Jew] will win under their laws, we judge them according to their laws and say to them: this is your law! If it is better that we judge according to our laws, we judge them according to our laws and say to them: this is our law! And do not find it difficult, and don’t be surprised by it, just as one is not surprised about the slaughter of animals even though they have done no harm, for one in whom human characteristics are not complete is not truly a man, and his end purpose is only for ‘man’ [that is to say, the entire raison d’etre of the Gentiles is only for the benefit of the complete man —

    comment by Rabbi Y. Kapach shlita in his edition of Maimonides’s Commentary on the Mishnah], and the discussion on this matter requires a separate book.”


    ‘You have not begun to appreciate the real depth of our guilt. We are intruders. We are disturbers. We are subverters. We have taken your natural world, your ideals, your destiny, and played havoc with them. We have been at the bottom not merely of the latest great war but nearly all your wars, not only of the Russian but of every other major revolution in your history. We have brought discord and confusion and frustration into your personal and public life. We are still doing it. No one can tell how long we shall go on doing it.’

    ‘A Real Case Against the Jews,’ Marcus Eli Ravage, The Century Magazine, January 1928, Vol. 115, No. 3 pp. 346-350. Part 2 appeared in the following issue, pp.476-483.

    ‘We shall drive the Christians into war by exploiting their national vanity and stupidity. They will then massacre each other, thus giving room for our own people.’

    Rabbi Reichorn in Le Contemporain, July 1, 1880

    ‘The Jew alone regards his race as superior to humanity, and looks forward not to its ultimate union with other races, but to its triumph over them all and to its final ascendancy under the leadership of a tribal Messiah.’

    Goldwin Smith, Professor of Modern History, Oxford University, in Nineteenth Century, October 1881


    This parasitic marvel enslaves cockroaches by stinging their brains in ridiculously precise spots and injecting mind-controlling venom. The wasp then leads its zombified roach to a chamber, where it lays a single egg on its perfectly relaxed host and seals it inside with pebbles. Here the larva bores into the cockroach and feeds off its organs before killing it and emerging from its corpse into the light of day.
    “Stinging a strong prey that’s often six times (or more) larger than yourself is not an easy task,” neurobiologist Ram Gal of Israel’s Ben-Gurion University said in an email interview. “Especially so when the venom must reach the brain of the prey, requiring delicate steering of the stinger inside the head of the cockroach. Hence, upon grabbing the cockroach by the pronotum [the armor], the wasp first injects venom inside the prey’s thorax, namely between the first (‘pro-thoracic’) pair of legs.”
    The roach’s front legs are now paralyzed, the first stage of behavioral modification, allowing the wasp to pull its stinger out and jam it into the neck unimpeded. This sting is far more precise, lasting close to a minute compared to a few fleeting seconds of the first. “During this time,” said Gal, “the wasp can uninterruptedly steer its stinger through the different tissues within the cockroach’s head capsule until it finds — using specialized sensory organs on the tip of its stinger — the cockroach’s brain.”

    That’s right. The wasp feels its way through the brain, depositing venom in two different spots, the supra-esophageal ganglion and sub-esophageal ganglion. Then she backs off, and at this point the cockroach does something rather unexpected for a bug that’s endured forcible brain surgery: It grooms itself obsessively for half an hour, stuck right at the spot of the attack, as if preparing for a date that sadly never comes. (I’m not trying to make this depressing, it’s just kinda happening.)

    While the cockroach is preening, the wasp flies off in search of a burrow, returning as this venom-induced behavior is beginning to fade. And it’s at this time that the third stage of behavioral modification kicks in — full-blown zombification. “It will stay in this state for days, and will not self-initiate locomotion or try to escape,” said Gal.
    Richard Dawkins provides several examples of how cunning parasites can be, and how easy it is to be fooled. The sophistication of some ant species makes the cuckoo look like a novice. He describes a parasitic ant which invades a neighbouring colony, seeks out its queen, climbs on top of it and methodically gnaws off its head. Having usurped the position at the top of this social hierarchy, the alien queen produces eggs which are tended by the invaded colonies’ workers, and new queens then go off to invade other colonies.

    Even this strategy has been improved upon by another ant species. To quote The Selfish Gene, p. 252 (Dawkins is here referring to the founder of sociobiology, Edward Wilson):
    ‘But sawing off heads is a bit of a chore. Parasites are not accustomed to exerting themselves if they can coerce a stand-in. My favourite character in Wilson’s The Insect Societies is Monomorium santschii. This species, over evolutionary time, has lost its worker caste altogether. The host workers do everything for their parasites, even the most terrible task of all. At the behest of the invading parasite queen, they actually perform the deed of murdering their own mother. The usurper doesn’t need to use her jaws. She uses mind-control. How she does it is a mystery; she probably employs a chemical, for ant nervous systems are generally highly attuned to them. If her weapon is indeed chemical, then it is as insidious a drug as any known to science. For think what it accomplishes. It floods the brain of the worker ant, grabs the reins of her muscles, woos her from deeply ingrained duties and turns her against her own mother. For ants, matricide is an act of special genetic madness and formidable indeed must be the drug that drives them to it. In the world of the extended phenotype, ask not how an animal’s behaviour benefits its genes; ask instead whose genes it is benefiting.’


    The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
    Palestinian geographer; born at Flosz, Bavaria, Oct. 22, 1804; died at Jerusalem
    Feb. 5, 1865. When he was seventeen years old he graduated as teacher
    from the Königliches Schullehrerseminar of Colberg, after which he joined his brother Israel at the University of Würzburg, where for five years he devoted himself to the history and geography of the Holy Land, and published a map of Palestine (1829; republished at Vienna, 1831, and Triest, 1832). It was his ardent desire, however, to study in Palestine itself the physical history and geography of the Holy Land, where his knowledge of Talmudic sources and early Jewish writers would be of more service. Accordingly he decided to settle in Jerusalem, whither he went in 1833. Schwarz then began a series of journeys and explorations in various parts of Palestine, to which he devoted about fifteen years.
    The results of his investigations and researches into the history, geography, geology, fauna, and flora of that country have placed him in the front rank of Palestinian explorers and geographers. HE IS THE GREATEST JEWISH AUTHORITY ON PALESTINIAN MATTERS SINCE ESTORI FARHI (1282-1357), the author of “Kaftor wa-Feraḥ.”

    (Be sure to Google this article)
    614-1096 C.E.
    From the Accession of the Mahomedans to that of the Europeans.

    By Rabbi Joseph Schwarz, 1850

    Rabbi Shallum, son of the then Resh Gelutha, in Babel, aka Abu Bachr al Chaliva al Zadik, Abu Bakr, the first Caliph, was in fact: [A JEWISH RABBI] Rabbi Shallum, son of the then Resh Gelutha, in Babel, perceiving this dreadful predicament, went to Mahomed, and offering him his submission, friendship, and services, endeavoured to enter with him into a friendly compact. Mahomed accepted his proposition with pleasure, conceived a great affection for him, and took his daughter, a handsome young girl (A 6 YEAR OLD CHILD), for wife; he made him also a general in his army, and gave him the name of Abu Bachr al Chaliva al Zadik, literally:
    The father of the maiden, the descendant of the righteous; this means, that of all his wives, who were either widows or divorced women, this one was the only one who had never been married before, and then she was the granddaughter of the celebrated chief of the captivity; therefore, the descendant of the righteous. This occurrence induced Mahomed to give up his terrible intention to destroy the Jews in his country, and thus did Rabbi Shallum save his people.

    Rabbi Shallum aka Abu Bakr and Umar hijacked Islam to create an army to destroy the PERSIAN & BYZENTIUM EMPIRES


    Assassination of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him and his pure family)
    ( Section : Explanation )


    Dear Shaykh Yasser
    Can you cite the sources of your assertion that Aysha and Hufsa were involved in assassination of Mohammed (SAW)?
    Jaweed Ahmed


    In His Name the Most High,
    All praise is due to Allah, may peace be upon Muhammed and his pure progeny and may the curse of Allah be upon their enemies.
    Assalamu Alaikum,

    The Office Answer:

    There are a number of traditions from the Shi’ah and Bakri sources concerning the involvement of Aysha and Hafsa in assassination of Prophet Muhammad as previously stated by the Sheikh in many lectures. However, in order for us to cite the sources of these traditions, it might be useful to look at the following verse first.

    “And Muhammad is no more than a messenger; many were the messengers that passed away before him; if then he died or is killed will you then turn back upon your heels? And whoever turns back upon his heels, not the least harm will he do to Allah; and Allah will reward the grateful.” (Sura 3:144).

    If we pay a closer attention to this section: “if then he died or is killed.” We find that it confirms that the Prophet would not die a natural death. Rather, it confirms that he would be killed. For the reason that the conjunctive (or) in this verse means “Rather” In Arabic, sometimes (or) indicates uncertainty and probability. In other contexts, it imparts correction.

    Since it is next to impossible that anyone should suspect Allah’s word, since He has insight into the unknown, Allah must have intended to impart the other meaning. Accordingly, the meaning of the verse is:

    “If he died, rather, he is killed, you turn upon your heels.”

    We hereby understand that the Prophet was to be killed and his assassination was to be followed by turning back and apostasy. This actually happened, and turned in favor of the rebels who seized power, i.e. Abu Bakr and Omar. Thus, it was particularly addressed to figures who were followers of Islam at the time of the Prophet and not to the Jews who were no longer a threat in Medina as the Bakries believe.

    How then was the prophet killed? And who were those involved in such a heinous crime? Was it really, as Aysha narrates, the Jewish woman Zainab Bint al-Harith who invited the Prophet and his companions after gaining victory over the Jews in the battle of Khaibar to a banquet; when she poisoned the meat she cooked causing the Prophet to die four years later!

    Ignoring the fact that the Battle of Khaibar actually took place in the seventh year of Hijra, while the Prophet (Peace be upon him and his pure family) died in the eleventh year. Is it really likely for a person to die because of a poisoned food he had consumed four years ago! Regardless of the fact that the effect of poison is immediate and even if it takes time it cannot exceed a few months in which the health condition deteriorates gradually; In addition to the fact that the prophet had no unusual health complaints and would participate in the battles throughout that intervening period!

    Or rather was the prophet poisoned by Aysha and Hafsa as commanded by their fathers Abu Bakr and Omar, which is evidenced in the Bakries’ as well as Shi’as’ books of Hadith?

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