The Health Establishment and the Order of Skull & Bones
Skull & Bones has played key roles on both sides of the anti-smoking movement. Taking over the tobacco industry was the first thing they did.
=> Lewis Richard Packard, Skull & Bones 1856, was the nephew of the notorious anti-smoker, Rev. George Trask
=> William Collins Whitney, Skull & Bones 1863, was one of the business partners of tobacco financier Thomas Fortune Ryan when he first came to New York City in the 1870s
=> Dr. Alexander Lambert, Skull & Bones 1884, was President of the Committee to Study the Tobacco Problem in 1923
=> Irving Fisher, Skull & Bones 1888, founded the Life Extension Institute in the boardroom of the Guaranty Trust
=> Thomas Cochran, Skull & Bones 1894, was a founder of the Tobacco Products Corporation, a predecessor of Philip Morris, in 1912
=> Harold Stanley, Skull & Bones 1908, was a director of the Tobacco Products Corporation in 1923
=> Joseph Taylor Foster, Skull & Bones 1908 – director of Tobacco and Allied Stocks, which held the largest share of Philip Morris stock
=> Dr. Stanhope Bayne-Jones, Skull & Bones 1910, overseer of the 1965 Surgeon General Report
=> The New England Institute for Medical Research & Prescott S. Bush, S&B 1917 – the Bones Link to the Microbiological Associates Mouse Inhalation Study
=> Artemus Lamb Gates, S&B 1918, raised funds for American Cancer Society’s predecessor, and was a member of the first American Heart Association governing board to include laymen
=> Charles Phelps Taft, S&B 1918, headed “Republicans for Progress,” whose cronies created the Evironmental Protection Agency and lobbied for it to proclaim that secondhand smoke causes cancer
=> Charles Dewey Hilles Jr., Skull & Bones 1924 – the direct personal link between the American Cancer Society and the Nazis
=> Amory Howe Bradford, Skull & Bones 1934, was on the staff of the 1971 Ash Council which created the EPA.
=> Frederick Peter Haas, Skull & Bones 1935 – General Counsel of Liggett & Myers, 1965-76
Also Liggett directors Frederick Sheffield, board chairman of the Carnegie Corporation of New York, whose son James Rockwell Sheffield is S&B 1959; and Earl G. Graves, whose son, Earl Gilbert Graves Jr. S&B 1984, is a BLACK BONESMAN; Bethuel M. Webster was mentor of NYC Mayor John V. Lindsay, whose twin brother David A. Lindsay was Skull & Bones 1944.
=> The EPA’s corrupt and fraudulent report on secondhand smoke was released during the final days of the Administration of President George H.W. Bush, Skull & Bones 1948 – and a crony of his and his son George W. Bush, Skull & Bones 1968, was on the board of directors of the crooked EPA contracting firm.
=> William H. Donaldson, Skull & Bones 1953 – director of Philip Morris, 1979-99
=> John Mercer Pinney, Skull & Bones 1965, was in charge of Surgeon General Reports 1977-81 and continues as a professional anti-smoker
=>Alan W. Cross, Skull & Bones 1966 – a third generation Bonesman – member of the US DHHS Secretary’s Council on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention
=> Robert Davis McCallum Jr., Skull & Bones 1968, crony of President Bush since Yale, U.S. Associate Attorney General, was in charge of the federal tobacco lawsuit
=> Christopher Taylor Buckley, Skull & Bones 1975 – Author of the novel, “Thank You For Smoking” (1994), disinformation which purveys health fascist pseudoscience and anti-smoker stereotypes about tobacco industry lobbyists.
His father-in-law, Donald Phinney Gregg, was a 31-year veteran of the C.I.A. who was assistant to Vice President George H.W. Bush for national security affairs. He is a former Bush speechwriter, and the son of William F. Buckley Jr., S&B 1950.
=> Regis James O’Keefe, M.D., Skull & Bones 1981, manufactures anti-smoking hate propaganda
The Harvard School of Public Health was created by the grandson of a Cincinnati crony of Bones co-founder Alphonso Taft
=> The Harvard School of Public Health’s family ties to yellow journalism and the Cancer Society
Skull & Bones founded the American Heart Association
The Lasker Family and the Order have had ties for more than a century. When Prussian legislator Eduard Lasker died in New York City in 1884, he was autopsied by Dr. William H. Welch, S&B 1870, and Andrew Dickson White, Skull & Bones 1853, spoke at his funeral. Eduard Lasker’s nephew, Albert D. Lasker, was a big benefactor of the American Cancer Society and its predecessor since the 1920s – as well as holding the advertising account for the American Tobacco Company! Albert Lasker’s wife, Mary Woodard Lasker, was the head of the ACS who began its persecution of tobacco, and the most powerful health lobbyist in Washington, until her death in 1994. And his son, Edward Lasker, was a close friend of the Yale-loyalist Cullman family, and a director of Philip Morris until 1981.
A phony establishment “history” of official lies: “Social movements as Catalysts for Policy Change: The Case of Smoking and Guns,” by Constance A. Nathanson of Johns Hopkins University (Health Politics, Policy and Law 1999 June;24(3):421-488.) It fraudulently pretends that history is merely a series of disconnected events reflecting the will of a faceless, anonymous “society,” instead of what it really is: THE WILL OF A LITTLE CLIQUE OF LYING, CHEATING, STEALING, POLITICALLY-CONNECTED VERMIN, who for more than a century have conspired to ram a health fascist dictatorship down America’s throat, by manipulating events from behind the scenes and covering their tracks with official lies like this. IT IS A CONSCIOUS AND DELIBERATE PROGRAM OF WARFARE AGAINST THE PEOPLE BY THE ELITE.
Before Skull & Bones
Jonathan Russell, the Ammidons, and Russell & Co.; The Mendon Connection; From Brown Brothers to the Morgan Guaranty Trust; The De Kovens of Middletown, Connecticut and Chicago; George A. Butler, a Black Partner of Russell & Company
From: America’s Secret Establishment, An Introduction to the Order of Skull & Bones, by Antony C. Sutton. Liberty House Press, 1986, pages 89-91.
“Johns Hopkins, a wealthy Baltimore merchant, left his fortune to establish a University for graduate education (the first in the United States along German lines) and a medical school.
“Hopkins’ trustees were all friends who lived in Baltimore. How then did they come to select Daniel Coit Gilman  as President of the new University?
“In 1874 the trustees invited three university presidents to come to Baltimore and advise on the choice of a President. These were Charles W. Eliot of Harvard, Andrew Dickson White of Cornell, and James B. Angell of Michigan. Only Andrew Dickson White was in The Order . After meeting independently with each of these presidents, half a dozen of the trustees toured several American Universities in search of further information – and Andrew D. White accompanied the tour. The result was, in the words of James Angell:
“‘And now I have this remarkable statement to make to you, that without the least conference between us three, we all wrote letters telling them that the one man was Daniel C. Gilman of California.’ [Footnote: John C. French, A History of the University Founded by Johns Hopkins. The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1946, p. 26.] [French was a member of S&B Class of 1910 -cast]
“The truth is that Gilman not only knew what was going on in Baltimore, but was in communication with Andrew White on the ‘Baltimore scheme,’ as they called it.
“In a letter dated April 5, 1874, Gilman wrote as follows to Andrew D. White:
“‘I could not conclude on any new proposition without conferring upon it with some of my family friends, and I have not felt at liberty to do so. I confess that the Baltimore (italics in original) scheme has ofttimes suggested itself to me, but I have no personal relations in that quarter.’ [Footnote: Life of Daniel Coit Gilman, p. 157.]
“Here’s the interesting point: the board appointed by Johns Hopkins to found a university did not even meet to adopt its by-laws and appoint committees until four weeks before this letter i.e., March 7, 1874. Yet Gilman tells us ‘the Baltimore scheme has ofttimes suggested itself to me…’
“In brief, Gilman knew what was happening over in Baltimore BEFORE HIS NAME HAD BEEN PRESENTED TO THE TRUSTEES!
“Gilman became first President of Johns Hopkins University and quickly set to work.
“Johns Hopkins had willed substantial amounts for both a University and a medical school. Dr. William H. Welch (’70), a fellow member of The Order, was brought in by Gilman to head up the Hopkins medical school. (Welch was President of the Board of Directors of the Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research for almost 25 years, 1910-1934…”
The Baltimore Bones Connection
THERE IS ANOTHER BONES CONNECTION IN THIS STORY: John Donnell Smith, Skull & Bones 1847, whose father was a fellow director with Johns Hopkins on the board of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, and an original trustee of the Peabody Institute. His grandniece was the wife of Dr. Stanhope Bayne-Jones, Skull & Bones 1910, a Bones classmate and very close friend of President William H. Taft’s son, Robert A. Taft, who ring-led the 1964 Surgeon General Report on smoking.
Daniel Coit Gilman (1831-1908) was born in Norwich, Conn. His parents were William Charles and Eliza (Coit) Gilman. He moved to New York City with his family when he was 14. “[H]e prepared for college under John J. Owen, D D, LL D (Middlebury College 1828), who was then principal of Cornelius Institute and afterwards professor of Latin and Greek in College of the City of New York. He was also for a short time a clerk in his father’s mercantile house.” While attending Yale, he lived with his uncle, Professor James L. Kingsley. “After graduation he continued his studies in New Haven under the direction of Professor (afterward President) Porter and engaged in private teaching and literary work, and in 1853 spent several months in graduate work at Harvard University, where his home was with Professor Arnold Guyot. In December of that year he and his friend, Andrew D. White (Y C 1853), afterward president of Cornell University and United States Minister to Russia and later to Germany, sailed for Europe as attachés of the American Legation at St. Petersburg.” He studied in Berlin and traveled in various countries until 1855…. Between 1853 and 1908 Dr. Gilman visited Europe ten times, extending his travels to Algiers, Egypt and the Holy Land. He spent most of the summer of 1908 in southern Europe, and returned to America October 7. After a brief stay with relatives in Newport, R I, he went to the home of his sister in Norwich, where he died suddenly of heart disease, October 13, at the age of 77 years.” (Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale, 1900-1910, p. 1012.) His uncle, Daniel Wadsworth Coit, who had bought gold dust for the Rothschilds during the California gold rush, gave him sketches of San Francisco when he went there to head the University of California in 1872.
Yale Professor James Luce Kingsley (1778-1852), YC 1799: His mother was a first cousin of Enoch Perkins, YC 1781. Prof. Kingsley’s daughter married Henry Taylor Blake, Skull & Bones 1848. (James Luce Kingsley. (Biographical Sketches of the Graduates of Yale College: With Annals of the College History. By Franklin Bowditch Dexter [S&B 1861]. Henry Holt & Co., 1911.) Prof. Kingsley was also the grandfather of Prof. Henry Walcott Farnam‘s wife. Her father was William Lathrop Kingsley, Yale 1843, a founder of Scroll & Key, and Prof. Kingsley’s sons George T. Kingsley ’32 and Henry Coit Kingsley, S&B 1834, were her uncles.
Daniel Coit Gilman’s brother, Rev. Edward W. Gilman, was married to Prof. Benjamin Silliman (S&B 1837) Jr.’s sister, Julia Silliman (Died. Gilman.- New York Times, Apr. 20, 1892, p.5.) Rev. Gilman was secretary of the American Bible Society for nearly thirty years. “He contributed frequently to the press, and several of his articles helped not a little to prepare the churches of the country to receive the Revised Version of the Scriptures.” (Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale, 1900-1910, p. 35.)
Daniel Coit Gilman’s sister, Elizabeth Coit Gilman, was married to Rev. Joseph Parrish Thompson, S&B 1838 (Married. New York Times, Oct. 26, 1853), of the Broadway Tabernacle in New York City (Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale, 1870-1880, p. 398). Rev. Thompson’s son, Dr. W. Gilman Thompson, was one of the New York University physicians who seceded to found Cornell University’s Medical College, which was funded by Oliver Hazard Payne. Thompson was a member of the Hygiene Reference Board of the Life Extension Institute in 1916.
Gilman was formally inaugurated as the President of Johns Hopkins in 1876. In that year, his brother, William Charles Gilman Jr., began forging the scrip of the Atlantic Mutual Insurance Company, then using them as collateral for loans from Henry Talmage & Co. (his usual bankers, upon whose inner office wall hung a portait of the Gilmans’ late father, who had been a deacon in the Church of the Puritans); the American Exchange National Bank; and the Home Life Insurance Company, who appeared to be in on the scam: “A short time ago the Home officials sent Gilman word that they wanted him to take back $30,000 of his scrip. He understood what they meant and immediately raised the money.” The raised scrip was returned to Gilman, while Home kept the genuine ones. Some of his indiviidual victims chose to remain anonymous and take their losses, and wealthy relatives unsuccessfully attempted to hush up the affair, while Gilman remained in hiding. Gilman’s pastor, the Rev. Dr. George H. Houghton of the Church of the Transfiguration (aka The Little Church Around the Corner), and his wife’s uncle, the Rev. Henry Ward Beecher, delivered heart-rending sermons on his plight. Gilman confessed, attributing his crimes to excessive philanthropy as well as business reversals, and was sentenced to five years hard labor at Sing Sing, which was soon changed to bookkeeping at Auburn. Rev. Houghton and Gilman’s brother-in-law, George W. Lane, met him on the train with a lunch from Delmonico’s. (New York Times: Vast Forgeries Exposed, Oct. 3, 1877; The Gilman Forgeries, Oct. 4, 1877; Local Miscellany, The Gilman Compromise, Oct. 6, 1877; Miscellaneous City News, More of Gilman’s Rascalities, Oct. 9, 1877; W.C. Gilman Sentenced, Oct. 13, 1877; Gilman’s Change of Prison, Oct. 21, 1877; Business Troubles. William C. Gilman’s Debts, Nov. 10, 1877.) Unfortunately, although there was great curiosity about who got the more than $187,000 that Gilman acquired, no names were ever revealed.
Mrs. William C. Gilman was Catherine B. Perkins (1839-1879), daughter of Thomas Clap Perkins, Yale 1818, and Mary Foot Beecher, daughter of Rev. Lyman Beecher; and grandaughter of Enoch Perkins (1760-1828), Yale 1781. (Commemorative Biographical Record of Hartford County, Connecticut. JH Beers & Co., 1901.) Thomas Clap Perkins’ brother, Rev, George W. Perkins, graduated from Yale in 1824. (Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale, 1870-1880, p. 13.)
Rev. Henry Ward Beecher was the son of Rev. Lyman Beecher and Roxanna Foote, who was a sister of Samuel E. Foote. Mrs. Samuel E. Foote’s sister was married to James Handasyd Perkins in Cincinnati, and the Beecher family was there from 1832-1836.
George W. Lane was a former City Chamberlain, and the longtime President of the New York Chamber of Commerce. He married the Gilmans’ sister, Harriet Lothrop Gilman, who died in 1881, and he married their sister Louisa in 1883. (Obituary. George William Lane. New York Times, Dec. 31, 1883.) William E. Dodge was one of the pallbearers at his funeral, which was attended by numerous wealthy and powerful businessmen (Events in the Metropolis, Funeral of George W. Lane. New York Times, Jan. 3, 1884.) Lane was a trustee of the Atlantic Mutual from at least 1876 to 1883. (Display Ads, New York Times, Jan. 27, 1876; Mar. 7, 1883.) Lane was also a trustee of the Central Trust Company between 1878 and at least 1881.
James Burrill Angel (1829-1916) was born in Scituate, Rhode Island, graduated from Brown University in 1849, then studied two years in Europe. He was professor of Literature and Modern Languages at Brown University from 1853-1860, and one of his students was John Hay, who studied law in Abraham Lincoln’s law office. He took over the editorship of the Providence Daily Journal, when its editor, Henry B. Anthony, was elected to the US Senate. He was President of the University of Vermont from 1866-1871, and President of the University of Michigan from 1871-1909. In 1845, he had married the daughter of Alexis Caswell, who was professor of mathematics and natural philosophy, and later the President, of Brown University (1868-1872). (Article 6. New York Times, Mar. 25, 1880 p. 4; Seven Decades of a Busy Life. New York Times, Feb. 11, 1912 p. BR64; James B. Angell, Noted Teacher, Dies. New York Times, Apr. 2, 1916.)
Alexis Caswell was elected Secretary of the newly-formed National Academy of Sciences in 1863. The NAS was created much in the manner of a secret society such as Skull & Bones, in which those secretly selected for membership may either accept or decline. Alexander Dallas Bache, a great-grandson of Benjamin Franklin, was considered a prime instigator. (The National Academy of Sciences: The First Hundred Years, 1863-1963. By Rexmond C. Cochrane. National Academy of Sciences, 1978. Chapter 3, The Incorporation and Organization of the Academy.) James Dwight Dana, who was elected a Vice President, was married to Benjamin Silliman Jr.’s sister, Henrietta Frances Silliman (Prof. Dana of Yale Dead. New York Times, Apr. 15, 1895; Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale, 1890-1900, p. 279.)
In 1887, President Cleveland appointed James B. Angell and then-Secretary of State Thomas F. Bayard (1828-1898) as members of the International Commission of Canadian Fisheries. In 1891, Dr. Frank Angell married Bayard’s daughter, Louise. Numerous members of the Du Pont family attended the wedding. (Angell – Bayard. New York Times, Dec. 22, 1891.) Dr. Frank Angell was born in Scituate, Rhode Island, the son of Charles and Harriet King Angell. He graduated from the University of Vermont in 1878, and got his Ph.D. from the University of Leipzig in 1891. He founded the psychology labs at Cornell and Stanford Universities, and was a member of the Belgian Relief Commission during the Hoover administration. (Dr. Frank Angell, 82, Taught at Stanford. New York Times, Nov. 3, 1939.) Thomas Francis Bayard Jr. (1868-1942), S&B 1890, who was the sixth member of his family to serve in the US Senate, was the direct descendant of James Asheton Bayard Sr. (1767-1815) and Jr. (1799-1880). He married a daughter of Alexis Irénée duPont. (Bulletin of Yale University, Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Year 1942-1943, p 29; Ex-Sen. Bayard, 74, of Delaware, Dies. New York Times, Jul. 13, 1942.) James B. Angell’s sister, Carolyn, married Dr. Peter Collier, who was dean of the Medical School at the University of Vermont during Angell’s tenure. Their daughter, Amy A. Collier, studied at the University of Michigan while he was president there. She married attorney Gilbert H. Montague in 1907. (Mrs. G.H. Montague Stricken in Maine. New York Times, Sep. 23, 1940.) James B. Angell had a brother, William, of Chicago, who was present at his death; this may have been William A. Angell, who was a close associate of George M. Pullman of the Pullman Palace Car Company; he and Guaranty Trust director Norman B. Ream were Pullman’s pallbearers. Another Angell, Charles, who had been Secretary of the company since its formation, absconded with $120,000 and was sent to prison in 1878.
James B. Angell was a member of the National Committee for Mental Hygiene, co-founded by Johns Hopkins psychiatrist Adolf Meyer. Meyer and fellow advisory committee members Jane Addams, Edwin A. Alderman, Lewellys F. Barker, Arthur T. Hadley [S&B 1876], Adolf Meyer, and William H. Welch were later members of Yale’s Institute of Human Relations, along with James B. Angell’s son, James Rowland Angell. James R. Angell became the first President of Yale who was not an alumnus.
Brown University’s experience foreshadowed that the University of Chicago: “It is well known that Brown University was founded by the Baptists, and the charter requires the President and a majority of the corporation to belong to that body of Christians. At the same time, the charter, with a liberality unknown elsewhere in the country, provides for full representation of other sects, both in the corporation and among the professors. The real ultimate object of the movement before the Alumni was to obtain an amendment of the charter by which the control of the University would finally be taken from the hands of the Baptists.” (The Colleges. New York Times, June 7, 1870.)
The Carnegie Institution
Daniel Coit Gilman (S&B 1852) was the first president of the Carnegie Institution from 1902 to 1904, and a trustee until 1908. Andrew D. White (S&B 1853) was a trustee from 1902 to 1916; John S. Billings from 1902 to 1913; William H. Welch (S&B 1870) from 1906 to 1934; Simon Flexner from 1913 to 1914; John J. Carty of AT&T (a member of the advisory committee of Yale’s Institute of Human Relations) from 1916 to 1932; and Frederic C. Walcott (S&B 1891) from 1931 to 1948. Later trustees include Edward E. David, Hanna H. Gray, and J. Irwin Miller.
Gilman conspired with James H. Kirkland and others to grab the money for a teacher’s college from George Peabody’s 1867 will for Vanderbilt University versus the University of Nashville. The University was endowed by “Commodore” Cornelius Vanderbilt (1794-1877), after his second wife’s cousin, Methodist Bishop Holland N. McTyeire of Nashville, recuperated at the Vanderbilt mansion after medical treatment in 1873. The University’s ties to the Methodist Episcopal Church were cut in 1914, under Chancellor Kirkland.
Chauncey Mitchell Depew (1834-1928), Skull & Bones 1856, was a lifelong friend of his fellow Bonesman, Andrew Dickson White. Depew’s family had long been associated with Cornelius Vanderbilt, and he began his career as an attorney for the New York and Harlem Railroad. He was its president from 1885 to 1899, and its chairman after serving as US Senator from 1899-1911. (Bulletin of Yale University Obituary Record of Yale Graduates 1927-1928, pp. 5-9.) Two of Depew’s longtime cronies, Sen. George F. Hoar of Massachusetts, and New York attorney Joseph H. Choate, were involved in the Vanderbilt University conspiracy.
Chauncey Depew’s niece, Dr. Elise Strang L’Esperance, was on the Board of Managers of the Memorial Center for Cancer and Allied Diseases. She and her sister, May Strang, founded the Kate Depew Strang Prevention Clinic at Memorial, and they used their inheritance from Uncle Chauncey to establish the Strang Tumor Clinic at New York Infirmary (of which Dr. L’Esperance became the director in 1937). “In 1910 she became associated with Dr. James Ewing as an assistant in the department of pathology of the Cornell Medical School,” and became an instructor within two years. She became a full Clinical Professor of Preventive Medicine in 1950. She received the Lasker Award for Clinical Research in 1951. (Dr. L’Esperance, Specialist, Dead. New York Times, Jan. 22, 1959.) Ewing supplied the scientifically-fraudulent health fascist ideology of the American Society for the Control of Cancer and its successor, the American Cancer Society, which is shared by the Strang Cancer Prevention Center.
The American National Red Cross
Gilman and other members of Skull & Bones were among the incorporators of the American Red Cross in 1905.
(Andrew Dickson White. Obituary Record of the Graduates, Yale University 1915-20, p. 840.)
Andrew Dickson White, M.A., LL.D., L.H.D. Educator, Politician, Statesman, by Prof. George L. Burr, Popular Science Monthly, Feb. 1896. In: Onondaga’s Centennial, Dwight H. Bruce, editor. Boston History Co. 1896, Vol. II, Biographical, pp. 75-84. White was the author of “A History of the Warfare of Science With Theology in Christendom” (D. Appleton & Co., 1896.) The health fascist ideology that the Skull & Bones conspirators have imposed on us is really nothing but religious dogma cloaked in the superficial trappings of science.
Other friends of White included Andrew Carnegie; Ulysses S. Grant; Henry Williams Sage; William H. Taft; William Roscoe Thayer, president of the American Historical Association; and Prince Henry of Prussia.
Frank Howard Trevor Rhodes, president of Cornell from 1977-1995, was a principal of the Washington Advisory Group.
Andrew Dickson White and David Starr Jordan
White recommended his former student, anti-smoker David Starr Jordan, to head the university which had just been founded by Sen. Leland Stanford in California.
Eduard Lasker, Prussian National Liberal Party Member of Parliament, and the author of Bismarck’s plan for the unification of Germany around Prussia, was the brother of Albert D. Lasker’s father, Morris Lasker.
After serving in the Prussian parliament from 1865 to 1879, Eduard Lasker died in New York City during a visit to the US in 1883-84. He traveled with the Villard party to the opening of the Northern Pacific Railroad in Seattle; visited his brother in Galveston, and also visited New Orleans, Cincinnati, and Washington, DC. On the night of his death, he had been at a dinner party at the house of Jesse W. Seligman, and was walking back to his rooms with a Mr. August Wasserman of California. (The Death of Dr. Lasker. New York Times Jan. 6, 1884, p7.) In New York, he stayed with a cousin, dry goods merchant Charles Henry Richter, at 102 Lexington Avenue. (Herr Lasker’s Sudden Death. Washington Post, Jan. 6, 1884.)
“The medical men at the autopsy, yesterday, were Dr. William H. Welch, of the Bellevue Medical College; Dr. Abraham Jacobi, the attendant physician of Dr. Lasker; Dr. C.T. Buffum, who was called in at the livery stable [near where Lasker collapsed], and Dr. W.T. Jenkins, Deputy Coroner.” (Cause of Edouard Lasker’s Death. New York Times, Jan. 7, 1884.)
The funeral: “Among the invited guests who attended were the Rev. Henry Ward Beecher, Chief-Justice Daly, Judge Noah Davis, Judge Van Hoesen, the Rev. Dr. De Sola Mendes, William M. Evarts, Herr Feigel, the German Counsel-General in this City; the staff of the German Ambassador, D.O. Mills, August Belmont, Morris K. Jesup, Edward Lauterbach, Henry Havemeyer, and Adolph L. Sanger.” The pallbearers included Mayor Edson, Jesse Seligman, Meyer S. Isaacs, Hyman Blum, Lewis May, J.H. Schiff, Lazarus Rosenfeld, Hugo Wesendonck, Meyer Stern, William Steinway, and Dr. A. Jacobi. (The Funeral of Dr. Lasker. President White, Mr. Schurz, and Others Pay Tribute to His Memory. New York Times, Jan. 11, 1884.) William Maxwell Evarts was a member of Skull & Bones, class of 1837. He was the great-grandfather of Archibald Cox Jr., the first chairman of the Health Effects Institute (1980-2001).
“Lasker’s death was the occasion of a curious episode, which caused much discussion at the the time. The American House of Representatives adopted a motion of regret, and added to it these words: ‘That his loss is not alone to be mourned by the people of his native land, where his constant exposition of, and devotion to, free and liberal ideas have materially advanced the social, political, and economic conditions of these people, but by the lovers of liberty throughout the world.’ This motion was sent through the American minister at Berlin to the German foreign office, with a request that it might be communicated to the president of the Reichstag. It was to ask Bismarck officially to communicate a resolution in which a foreign parliament expressed an opinion in German affairs exactly opposed to that which the emperor at his advice had always followed. Bismarck therefore refused to communicate the resolution, and returned it through the German minister at Washington.'” (Lasker, Eduard (1829-1884). LoveToKnow 1911 Encyclopedia.)
Lasker was one of 40 Germans who were invited to attend the opening of the Northern Pacific Railroad in Seattle in 1883. One of the addresses at his funeral was given by Andrew Dickson White, who “had known him well in Berlin” when White was the US minister to Germany. The other address was given by White’s “friend of many years,” Carl Schurz. (Autobiography of Andrew Dickson White, Chapters 35 and 11. The Century Co, 1904, 1905.)
The German visitors were entertained by George Washburn during their stopover in Minneapolis. (Domestic Dispatches. Galveston Daily News, Sep. 2, 1883.) Some of the Germans also accepted an invitation from the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway to travel over its line to Denver (with a stop in Albuquerque) and on to Kansas City. “Their names are: Dr. Eduard Lasker, imperial German parliament, Berlin; Dr. Paul Lindau, Berlin; Dr. George Siemens, director German bank, Berlin; Herr Theodore Spaeth, privy councillor, Speyer; Herr Adolph Froehlich, bank president, Zweibrucken; Dr. Richard Oberlander, editor Weltpost and special correspondent Frankfurter Zeitung Leipsic; Herr Udo Brachvogal, editor New York Belletristiches Journal and special correspondent Ueber Land and Meer, New York; Dr. jar. Ernst Magnus, Breslau; Dr. jar. H. Oswalt, Frankfurt O.M.; Dr. med. Paul Wolfskehl, Darmstadt; Herr Friedrich Hess, proprietor California Demokrat, San Francisco.” (Noted Railway Capitalists. Rocky Mountain News, Oct. 6, 1883 p. 2.) They reached Galveston on Oct. 11. (The Galveston Daily News, Oct. 11, 1883.)
Eduard Lasker sleeps for eternity in a double grave beside his friend, Ludwig Bamberger, the founder of the German Liberal Union Party.
Andrew D. White, James B. Angell, and Daniel Coit Gilman were also active in the National Education Association.
Directors of the Northern Pacific during 1882-84 were Frederick Billings, Ashbel H. Barney, John W. Ellis, Roswell G. Rolston, Robert Harris, Thomas F. Oakes, J. Pierpont Morgan, Henry Villard, and August Belmont, of New York; J.L. Stackpole and Benjamin F. Cheney, of Boston; and John C. Bullitt and Henry E. Johnston, of Philadelphia. (The Northern Pacific Road. New York Times, Sep. 22, 1882; Accepting His Resignation. New York Times, Jan. 5, 1884.) Ashbel H. Barney was a founder of Wells, Fargo & Co. His son, Charles T. Barney, was William C. Whitney’s brother-in-law. Billings and Rolston were directors of the Farmers Loan and Trust Company.
Villard’s guests included British investors as well. Sir James Hannen, Sir W. Brampton Gurdon, Francis Buxton, member of Parliament; Sir Arthur Hobhouse, K.C.S.I.; Henry Edwards, Lord Justice Bowen, Lord Carrington, S.G. Rathbone, James Bryce, M.P.; J. Annan Bryce, Albert Pel, and Henry B. Samuelson went by two special cars on the Pennsylvania Railroad. In four speciasl cars on the Erie Railway were Gen. Grant, Samuel J. Tilden, Capt. Holford, Robert H. Benson, Vicary Gibbs, and Albert H.G. Gray, M.P., and others. (The Northern Pacific Guests. New York Times, Aug. 31, 1883.)
Carl Schurz and Margarethe Meyer Schurz
Carl Schurz had been a member of the Geman revolutionary movement of 1848, then immigrated to Watertown, Wisconsin in 1855, but left to practice law in Milwaukee in 1859. After service in the Civil War, he was elected US Senator from Missouri, 1869-75, and was Secretary of the Interior from 1877 to 1881. From 1881 to 1884, he was editor of The New York Evening Post.
Watertown, Wisconsin had a settlement of German political refugees from the revolution of 1848 who spoke Latin and Greek. Carl Schurz’s wife established the first kindergarten in the US there. Mary Woodard was born in Watertown in 1900; her father, Frank E. Woodard, was president of the Bank of Watertown.
Schurz studied under Prof. Gottfried Kinkel before fleeing Germany; and in 1860 was a member of the University of Wisconsin Board of Regents. (Register of the Papers of Carl Schurz, at The Balch Institute for Ethnic Studies of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.)
Karl Marx and Frederick Engels ridiculed Kinkel and Schurz in “The Heroes of the Exile!,” 1852.
The owner of the Evening Post, Henry Villard (aka Ferdinand Heinrich Gustav Hilgard), was also in the management of the Northern Pacific Railroad, representing “European financial interests speculating in American railroads.” Werner von Siemens, founder of Siemens & Halsted, had had a seat in the Prussian legislature from 1862-66; and Deutsche Bank, whose first head of management was his cousin’s son, Georg von Siemens, was a major owner of the Northern Pacific; and they also financed Thomas Edison and the Edison General Electric Company. Villard also owned The Nation, and had married the daughter of one of its founders, William Lloyd Garrison.
The Nation and The New Republic, by Beulah Amidon. The Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt Institute.
Dr. Abraham Jacobi, Eduard Lasker‘s physician in New York, got his degree at Bonn University in 1851. He was a very close friend of Carl Schurz and had also been deeply involved in the German Revolution of 1848. He was the first Professor of Pediatrics at New York Medical College (1860-1870), then Professor of Pediatrics at City University of New York from 1870 to 1902. In 1873, he married Mary Corinna Putnam, the daughter of the founder of GP Putnam & Sons, publishers; her brother, Herbert Putnam, was later the Librarian of Congress. In cooperation with the German Society of the city of New York, he co-founded the German Dispensary, which later became Lenox Hill Hospital. (Abraham Jacobi. Geman Information Center, 1976.) (Cazoo City is on the outskirts of Edison, New Jersey.) Mary Jacobi was one of the feminist financiers who forced Johns Hopkins Medical School to admit women.
John J. McCloy and Benjamin Butterweiser were later trustees of Lenox Hill Hospital; Rose Cippolone (of smoking lawsuit fame) was a patient there; and CTR Scientific Advisory Board member Sheldon Sommers had been one of her pathologists.
Jacobi was an uncle-by-marriage of Franz Boas, head of the Department of Anthropology at Columbia University. Boas was a member of the Advisory Committee of Yale’s Institute of Human Relations, chaired by William H. Welch, in 1929. Boas’s students included Frances Humphrey Howard‘s friend Margaret Mead; and M.F. Ashley Montagu, who contributed his specious denuniciation, “Nothing Can Be Said in Favor of Tobacco,” to George Seldes’s rag, In fact, in the 1940s. (“The Boas Conspiracy”: The History of the Behavioral Sciences as Viewed From the Extreme Right. Paper presented at the 33rd Annual Meeting of CHEIRON, 2001, by Prof. Andrew S. Winston of the University Guelph, who scoffs at the idea of conspiracy.)
The flour magnates enlisted by Frederick T. Gates to found the University of Chicago included Charles A. Pillsbury (died 1899), whose uncle was John S. Pillsbury (1827-1901), the governor of Minnesota from 1876 to 1887. Charles had twin sons, John S. Pillsbury and Charles S. Pillsbury. John Sargent Pillsbury Jr., who became president of Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Co., was initiated into Skull & Bones class of 1935; and Edward Pennington Pillsbury, who died prior to 1952, was in the S&B class of 1936. The former governor’s brother, George A. Pillsbury, was a member of the first board of trustees of the University of Chicago.
Mary Pillsbury Lord (Mrs. Oswald Bates Lord) was a director of the National Citizens Committee for the World Health Organization in 1964. Her husband was a member of Skull & Bones class of 1926, and her son, Winston Lord, the former chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations, is a member of S&B class of 1959. She is also the mother-in-law of Bette Bao Lord. Fellow directors included Basil O’Connor, president of the National Foundation; Harold S. Diehl of the American Cancer Society; and Howard A. Rusk.
In 1974, Mrs. Lord was on the Board of Directors of the American Association for World Health, Inc., the US Committee for the World Health Organization. Fellow directors included Leona Baumgartner; Walter G. James, Vice President for Public Education of the American Cancer Society; George Baehr of the Health Insurance Plan of Greater New York; and Howard A. Rusk.
Mrs. Oswald Lord was a member of Republicans for Progress, a splinter group of “progressive” Republicans headed by Charles P. Taft, S&B 1918 (19 Republicans Join Party Progressives. New York Times, Apr. 15, 1965.) Other members included Walter N. Thayer, who was a member of the Ash Council that created the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; and Mrs. Webster B. Todd, the mother of EPA Administrator Christine Todd Whitman. And, Taft’s crony, John C. Topping Jr., lobbied for the EPA to proclaim that secondhand smoke caused cancer, and was a crony of the secret author of the main chapters of the EPA’s report.
From “The Rockefeller Chronicle,” by Anne Bennett Swingle, an approved history in the Fall 2002 Hopkins Medical News: “In the summer of 1897 as Frederick Gates, a former Baptist minister who had become John D. Rockefeller’s most trusted advisor, vacationed with his family on Lake Liberty in the Catskill Mountains, he began perusing William Osler’s Principles and Practice of Medicine. Gates was fascinated with the scholarly approach to diagnosing and treating disease laid out by Johns Hopkins Hospital’s first physician-in-chief. And yet, he hungered for more. ‘To a layman like me demanding cures, [Osler] had no word of comfort,’ Gates wrote later.
“The key to curing disease, Gates believed, lay in scientific research. He took that idea to John D. Rockefeller Jr., who would shortly take over the family fortune, and Rockefeller Jr. clearly got the message. Four years later, on a March evening in 1901, as he dined with two New York physician-friends, Christian Herter and Emmett Holt, Rockefeller Jr. told them he was planning to create an institution devoted solely to medical research. Who, he asked them, could lead such an organization? Both doctors shot back the same name: William Welch of Johns Hopkins.”
The Hopkins will was to have funded the medical school with 15,000 shares of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, but by 1884, their value had dropped, and there was no longer enough money. The daughters of four of the Hopkins trustees (M. Carey Thomas, daughter of physician James Carey Thomas; Mary Elizabeth Garrett, daughter of B&O railroad tycoon Robert Garrett; Bessie King, daughter of trustee chairman Francis T. King; Mamie Gwinn, daughter of executor Charles J.M. Gwinn), and Julie Rogers, founders of the Bryn Mawr School for Girls, offered more money on the condition that the Hopkins medical school admit women. Additional allies included Caroline Harrison, wife of the sitting president; Jane Stanford, wife of Stanford University founder Leland Stanford and then a US senator; Bertha Palmer, “the queen of Chicago society,” whose husband, Potter Palmer, built the Palmer House Hotel; Louisa Adams, wife of President John Quincy Adams; abolitionist Julia Ward Howe; Alice Longfellow, daughter of the poet; novelist Sarah Ome Jewett; and the woman physicians Mary Putnam Jacobi (wife of Abraham Jacobi) and Emily Blackwell. (The Other Feminist, by Janet Farrar Worthington. Johns Hopkins Medical News; and Mary Elizabeth Garrett, Founding Benefactor of the School of Medicine, by Nancy McCall. The Hopkins Gazette, Feb. 12, 2001.) The B&O is now part of CSX. Bertha Mathilde Honore Palmer was a financial mainstay of Jane Addams’s Hull House.
William H. Welch (1850-1934) originally had “no interest in becoming a physician; his major ambition was to become a tutor of Greek.” Welch was appointed by Daniel Coit Gilman in 1884 as the first fulltime member of the faculty of Johns Hopkins University, and assembled its faculty with the help of John Shaw Billings. He also founded and was the first director of the School of Hygiene and Public Health. Welch knew Abraham Jacobi from his intern days at Bellevue Hospital in 1875-76, and met Billings (supposedly by accident) during his training in Liepzig, Germany in 1876-77. (Bulletin of Yale University. Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Year 1933-1934, pp. 14-17.) Lewis R. Packard, Skull & Bones 1856, a nephew of Rev. George Trask, was professor of Greek at Yale from 1863 to 1884.
Biographical material collected by Simon Flexner for biography, “William Henry Welch and the Heroic Age of American Medicine.”
Welch’s ties to Skull and Bones are explicitly noted in his papers collection in the Johns Hopkins archives: Folder 67/13-15, YALE COLLEGE “Skull and Bones,” 1871-1933.
Dr. John Howland, Skull & Bones 1894, professor of pediatrics at Johns Hopkins since 1912, in 1914 “took over the direction of the William H. Welch Endowment for Clinical Education and Research, along with Dr. William S. Halsted, Yale 1874, and Dr. Theodore C. Janeway, Yale 1891.
Welch was a correspondent of James R. Angell from 1919 to 1930; Lewellys F. Barker from 1901-31; Stanhope Bayne-Jones in 1932-33; Arthur D. Bevan from 1910-23; Joseph C. Bloodgood 1919-1929, and Mrs. Bloodgood 1929-33; William Cabell Bruce 1910-1933; Nicholas M. Butler 1904-1920; John J. Carty from 1926-30; J. McKeen Cattell 1919-1930; Alfred E. Cohn 1926-32; William B. Coley 1923-1933; Surgeon General Hugh S. Cumming 1920-34; Harvey Cushing 1897-1934; William Darrach 1919-30; Robert W. DeForest 1920-31 including “Press clipping with photos Yale class of 1870”; and Frederic Shepard Dennis (Skull & Bones 1872), who established the Carnegie Laboratory in 1895, was a correspondent from 1862 to 1933. “Dr. Dennis was persuaded to take up medicine by the late Dr. William H. Welch of Connecticut, father of Dr. William H. Welch, internationally famous pathologist of Johns Hopkins University, who is called the dean of American Medicine. Dr. Dennis and the present Dr. Welch were intimate friends since their boyhood days in Connecticut. They were room-mates at Winchester Academy and Yale.” He also graduated from the Royal College of Surgeons in London, then “worked for a time under von Langenbeck, surgeon general of the Prussian Army.” He was professor of clinical surgery at Bellevue Hospital Medical College from 1883 to 1888, and at Cornell Medical College until retiring emeritus in 1910. (Dr. F.S. Dennis Dies; Famed As Surgeon. New York Times, Mar. 9, 1934.)
Welch was a correspondent of Charles W. Eliot from 1902-1922; John H. Finley from 1925-32; Simon Flexner from 1899-1934; Raymond B. Fosdick 1922-1934; John C. French from 1921-32; Frederick T. Gates from 1907-25; Daniel C. Gilman from 1884-1901, and Elizabeth Gilman from 1911-33; Ludvig Hektoen 1910-20; Robert W. Johnson in 1919, 1920 and 1930; Jerome D. Greene 1914-1927; Theodore C. Janeway 1904-17; David S. Jordan in 1911; Vernon Kellogg from 1924-30, and with his wife Charlotte Kellogg until 1934.
Welch was a correspondent of anti-smoker Alexander Lambert in 1919; William J. Mayo from 1910-20; Albert G. Milbank from 1929-34; Raymond Pearl from 191-34; Sen. Joseph E. Ransdell in 1927 and 1931-33; John D. Rockefeller Jr. between 1901 and 1934, and Wickliffe Rose of the Rockefeller Foundation 1914-1931; and Peyton Rous from 1922-34. He also kept in touch with old classmates from Yale, including George D. Miller, from 1870 to 1929. George Douglas Miller (also S&B 1870) was the “Patriarch” who donated the Deer Iland retreat to the group, and requested that peculiar spelling of the word “island.” Another classmate whom Welch kept in touch with was Dwight Whitney Learned, S&B 1870, from 1869 to 1933. Learned went to Japan in 1875 and helped found Doshisha University, and served as its first and/or second president. Welch was also a correspondent of James Gore King McClure, S&B 1870, from 1871-1930. McClure was a Presbyterian minister who headed Lake Forest College from 1892-93 and 1897-1901, and president of McCormick Theological Seminary in 1905.
Welch papers Series I, L-R / Johns Hopkins Medical Institute
The History of Deer Island / NewRuins.com
1916 Postcard of Deer Island / Vintage Views
Learned Memorial Library / Doshisha University
President James G.K. McClure / Lake Forest University
Welch was a correspondent of Margaret Sanger from 1921-33; Edward W. Sheldon 1925-1932; George H. Simmons from 1911-1930; W. Gilman Thompson from 1910-1920; Ray Lyman Wilbur from 1911-31; Edwin B. Wilson from 1919-32; Woodrow Wilson from 1910-1918; C.-E.A. Winslow from 1919-1934; and Milton C. Winternitz from 1919-34.
The American Lung Association
William Welch was a co-founder of the National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis in 1904. Drs. Hermann Biggs, Lawrence Flick, and William Osler were other co-founders, and its first president was Edward Livingston Trudeau. Edward Livingston Trudeau Jr. joined Skull & Bones in 1896, but died of TB in 1904. The organization changed its name to the National Tuberculosis Association in 1918, and later became the American Lung Association. (Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale, 1900-1910, p. 375; The Birth of the ALA, by Donny Wright and Joby Topper. University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, 1998.)
Livingston Farrand (1867-1939) was Executive Secretary of the NASPT from 1905 to 1914; President of the University of Colorado 1914-1919; Chairman of the Executive Committee of the American National Red Cross from 1919 to 1921; and President of Cornell University from 1921 to 1937. He was a graduate of Princeton University, 1888.
In 1913, Farrand was a founder of the American Society for the Control of Cancer, the predecessor of the American Cancer Society.
In 1939, Farrand co-authored a “Report to the Rockefeller Foundation on the Education of Public Health Personnel” with Thomas Parran. (Who Will Keep the Public Healthy? Educating Public Health Professionals in the 21st Century. Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention of the Institute of Medicine, National Academy Press, 2003.)
The Carnegie Institution
Welch was a trustee of the Carnegie Institution from 1906 to 1934. Daniel Coit Gilman (S&B 1852) was its first president from 1902 to 1904, and a trustee until 1908; Andrew D. White (S&B 1853) was a trustee from 1902 to 1916; John S. Billings from 1902-1913; Simon Flexner from 1913-1914; John J. Carty of AT&T from 1916-1932; and Frederic C. Walcott (S&B 1891) was a trustee from 1931 to 1948. Later trustees include Edward E. David, Hanna H. Gray, and J. Irwin Miller.
The National Committee for Mental Hygiene
Hopkins psychiatrist Adolf Meyer helped edit Clifford Whittingham Beers’s autobiography, A Mind That Found Itself,” and was a co-founder of the National Committee for Mental Hygiene. In 1910, its members included future IHR advisory committee members Jane Addams, Edwin A. Alderman, Lewellys F. Barker, Arthur T. Hadley, Adolf Meyer, and William H. Welch; James R. Angell’s father, James B. Angell; assorted Bonesmen: Otto T. Bannard, S&B 1876, President of New York Trust Co. and Vice President of the Charity Organization of the City of New York under Robert W. de Forest; mathematical economist Irving Fisher, S&B 1888; Gifford Pinchot, S&B 1889; prep school founder Sherman Day Thacher, S&B 1883; Yale Secretary Anson Phelps Stokes, S&B 1896; plus financier Major Henry L. Higginson (whose wife was Ida Agassiz); and Stanford President David Starr Jordan.
The National Academy of Sciences
William H. Welch was President and a member of the Executive Committee of the National Academy of Sciences from 1913 to 1917. In 1916, John J. Carty, Chief Engineer and later Vice President of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, and future member of the advisory board of the Institute of Human Relations, was Chairman of the Executive Committee of the newly-organized National Research Council, and anti-smoker Raymond Pearl was one of its members. (The National Academy of Sciences: The First Hundred Years, 1863-1963; Ch. 8 World War I and the Creation of the National Research Council, p. 214. National Academy of Sciences, 1978.)
The George Williams Hooper Foundation
Welch was a trustee of the Hooper Foundation for Medical Research at the University of California from 1913 to 1922.
China Medical Board / Peking Union Medical College
Welch was a trustee of the China Medical Board from 1914 to 1928, and Peking Union Medical College from 1915 to 1931.
The Institute of Human Relations
In 1929, Yale President James Angell created the Institute of Human Relations, with Welch as its Chairman, setting up a national policy network controlled by Skull & Bones and cronies of Albert Lasker.
William H. Welch helped organize and was the first faculty member of the Delta Omega Honorary Public Health Society at JHU. Raymond Pearl, the author of the 1938 actuarial anti-smoking study trumpeted by George Seldes, was elected to its Alpha Chapter in 1925. Pearl was a crony of C.C. Little in the birth control movement in the 1920s. Charles-Edward Amory Winslow was a member of its Epsilon Chapter from Yale University, ca. 1927, and was the organization’s president from 1927-28. It also had chapters at Harvard (Beta), the University of Michigan (Delta), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Gamma), and the University of California (Zeta). (A History of the Delta Omega Honorary Public Health Society, by Gerald J. Shorb.)
“The effort to commit the federal government to the active support of cancer research precedes by sixty years the Panel of Consultants. In 1910, President William Howard Taft proposed the creation of a “Bureau of Public Health” which, in addition to exercising federal quarantine powers, would also provide opportunity ‘for investigation and research by competent experts into questions of health affecting the whole country.’ Taft’s proposal prompted the American Association for Cancer Research to instruct Dr. H.R. Gaylord, director of the New York State Cancer Laboratory in Buffalo, to write the president and request the inclusion of a cancer division within the proposed bureau. Gaylord, who had been studying cancer of the thyroid in trout, personally delivered his memorandum to the president. He stressed that the cause of cancer was not yet known, that promising lines of research were being pursued on cancer in lower animals, especially fish, and that careful study of cancer in fish would provide information of an invaluable character for humanity. The memorandum concluded with a request for an appropriation to immediate establish and operate a laboratory for the study of fish diseases.” ((From “Cancer Crusade: The Story of the National Cancer Act of 1971.” By Richard Rettig. Joseph Henry Press, 1977. Ch. 3, The National Cancer Institute, p. 42)(Bulletin of Yale University. Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Year 1929-1930, pp. 70-73.) Dr. William S. Thayer was one of Taft’s physicians during his final illness. (Physicians Doubt Taft Will Recover. AP. Ironwood Daily Globe, Feb.4, 1930.)
William H. Taft (1857-1930) was president of the United States from 1909 to 1913. William H. Welch (S&B 1870) was a social friend of William Howard Taft (S&B 1878) since at least 1905. Taft had been one of the incorporators of the American Red Cross in that year. IHR advisory committee members Harvey Cushing and Lewellys Barker, and Julius H. Comroe Sr. (the father of the member of CTR Scientific Advisory Board member) were also friends of Taft. The website notes that the Maryland Club, where they had their dinners, “was astonishingly uncooperative with efforts to research these historical events.” (Physicians in William Howard Taft’s Life. Apneos.) Taft stated that “I have never used tobacco in my life” (Mr. Taft on Diet Loses 70 Pounds. The New York Times, Dec. 12, 1913.) IHR member John Hays Hammond (Book and Snake 1876) was one of Taft’s boyhood friends, and Mabel Boardman of the Red Cross was one of his most intimate friends. Former tobacco man Edwin A. McAlpin was President of the National League of Republican Clubs at the beginning of the 1908 election campaign. (The Most Intimate Friends of President Taft. By E.J. Edwards. New York Times, May 29, 1910.) His brother, George L. McAlpin, graduated from Yale in 1879.
Taft was honorary president of the 50th Session of the International Congress of Hygiene and Demography, which was held at the Red Cross Hall in Washington, DC. Dr. J.W. Schereschewsky was director general of the exhibition. (Health Exhibit Opens. Washington Post, Sep. 17, 1912.) Schereschewsky was a member of the Public Health Administration of the Life Extension Instititute, with which Taft was also involved. (The Project Gutenberg EBook of How to Live, by Irving Fisher and Eugene Fisk. 9th edition, 1916.) As Assistant Surgeon General in 1922, Schereschewsky established the Office of Cancer Investigations of the US Public Health Service at Harvard University, which was subsequently merged into the National Cancer Institute.
Charles D. Hilles Sr. (!867-1949) was President Taft’s Secretary from 1911-12; chairman of the Republican National Committee from 1912 to 1916; and a trustee of the Guggenheim Foundation from 1925 to 1949. His son, Charles Dewey Hilles Jr. (1902-1974), Skull & Bones 1924, was director-at-large and an officer of the American Society for the Control of Cancer and its successor, the American Cancer Society, 1939 to 1959.
The Life Extension Institute
In 1913, in the boardroom of the Guaranty Trust Company, the Life Extension Institute was formed, with former President William H. Taft (S&B 1878) as chairman of the board, anti-smoker Irving Fisher (S&B 1888) as chairman of its Hygiene Reference Board, and William H. Welch as a member of that board. Taft’s son, Charles P. Taft, Yale 1918, was a Republican Party crony of John C. Topping Jr., who engineered the US Environmental Protection Agency to issue its fraudulent report claiming that secondhand smoke causes lung cancer.
In 1851, in the absence of anything resembling a database, Rev. Trask proclaimed, “It is computed that 20,000 persons every year, in America, go to their grave from the use of tobacco.” (Temperance. Weekly Eagle, Brattleboro, Vt., Jun. 23, 1851.) “Rev. George Trask asserts that sleeping with a tobacco consumer actually affects the health of a person who does not use the article. The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal so far endorses his opinion as to say, ‘This had not before occurred to us, but on examination of the facts [sic], there appears some reason in the statement.” (Kenosha Telegraph, Nov. 19, 1852.)
Rev. George Trask was born in Beverly, Mass., in 1796. He first worked for his father, Jeremiah Trask, as a shoemaker, then in 1812, he was apprenticed to his older brother, Israel Trask, a manufacturer of Britannia ware. In 1816, Trask opened a hardware and jewelry store in Marblehead, where he made enough money to finance his college education. His preparatory studies studies were chiefly prosecuted at Gorham, Me., afterwards entering Brunswick College. He entered the ministry and was installed at Framingham, Warren and Fitchburg. One of his supporters was Boston financier Amos Lawrence: “Boston, Dec. 31. – Sad! sad! Hear of the decease of Amos Lawrence, Esq. Many rills of beneficience are cut off by this stroke of death. He had just begun to show an interest in my humble cause, had printed two editions of my ‘Uncle Toby’ and generously spread them over the land. But yesterday he said, ‘I like this boys’ book. If I live, every school-boy in our state shall have a copy.’ ‘I owe,’ he says, ‘my present position in society, under God, to the fact that I never used rum or tobacco.’ He wrote in his pocket-book, ‘How hardly shall they who have riches enter into the kingdom of heaven!’ On whom has the mantle of Lawrence fallen?” (Rev. George Trask, the “Anti-Tobacco Apostle.” By Atherton P. Mason. Read at a Meeting of the Society, Septemlxr 21, 1896. Proceedings of the Fitchburg Historical Society and Papers, 1902.) We can answer that question! Amos Lawrence’s son, Amos Adams Lawrence, was a business crony of William Gage Lambert and his son, Dr. Edward Wilberforce Lambert, a founder of the Equitable Life Assurance Society, and the grandfather of avowed anti-smoker Dr. Alexander Lambert, Skull & Bones 1884 His grandson was Bishop William Lawrence, who helped establish the Harvard School of Public Health, which is the wellspring of health fascist scientific fraud.
“Israel Trask hired his brothers Oliver and George to work with him, plus a neighbor, Eben Smith.” He may have taken over the business of Philip Lee in 1812. After Israel Trask’s death, his business passed into the hands of John Hill. (The story of Brittania Ware in Beverly. By Stephen Hall. Wicked Local Beverly, Jan 16, 2008.) Rev. Trask’s daughter, Eliza Sessions Carpenter Trask, married John L. Hill.
Ruth Freeman Packard, daughter of Rev. Asa Packard, married Rev. George Trask in 1831. She was the sister-in-law of Frederick A. Packard, Harvard 1814. After Rev. Trask died, Mrs. Trask announced that “business will be continued at the old stand,” and that she has published “the tract to Spurgeon on smoking which was unfinished at Trask’s death.” (The Farmer’s Cabinet, Apr. 7, 1875.) Lewis Richard Packard, Skull & Bones 1856, was the son of Frederick A. Packard and Elizabeth D. Hooker. He was Professor of Greek [Dr. William H. Welch’s favorite subject] at Yale from 1863-1884. (Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale, 1880-1890, p. 259.) His brother, Frederick Packard, Yale 1848, was a lawyer in Appleton, Wis. (Obituary Record, Yale 1859-1870, p. 73.) Another brother, Dr. John Hooker Packard, was a physician in Philadelphia. His sons, Charles Stuart Wood Packard and Dr. Frederick Adolphus Packard, were trustees of the University of Pennsylvania (New England Families, Genealogical and Memorial. By William Richard Cutter. Lewis historical publishing company, 1914); and John Hooker Packard Jr. was American manager of the London Assurance Corporation between 1907 and 1929 (John H. Packard. New York Times, Sep. 10, 1947.) Elizabeth Dwight Hooker’s nephew, Thomas Hooker [S&B 1869], the son of Rev. Richard Hooker 1827, married Sarah Bowles, a sister of Chester Bowles‘ grandfather. (The Descendants of Rev. Thomas Hooker, Hartford, Connecticut. By Edward Hooker, Margaret Huntington Hooker, 1909.)
Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale, 1880-1890, p. 259 / Google Books
Obituary Record, Yale 1859-1870 / Internet Archive
Packard – New England Families, Genealogical and Memorial / Google Books
Elizabeth Dwight Hooker – The Descendants of Rev. Thomas Hooker, Hartford / Google Books
Rev. Trask’s son, Brainard Packard Trask, was principal of the Day street grammar school in Fitchburg, Mass. He died young, “not far from 34 years,” at the house of his father-in-law, in Frederick, Maryland, leaving a wife and an infant son. (Personal. Lowell Daily Citizen and News, Oct. 7, 1870.) She was Mary Sanger (Cann), daughter of Rev. Thomas McMullen Cann. The son, Thomas Cann [Quincy] Trask, graduated from Yale in 1893. He was a teacher in Brooklyn and New York City. Among his half-sibs were Margaret Lovell Plumley. (Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Year 1942-1943, p.41.)
Margaret Lovell Plumley did research under the auspices of the Institute of Medicine, “an organization of Chicago physicians who sought in the study an impartial view on the question as to whether free clinical and hospital treatment take in patients who might ordinarily patronize a private physician.” “An advisory committee on social and economic factors included Dr. Michael M. Davis of the Julius Rosenwald fund as chairman, and representatives of Northwestern University, the University of Chicago, the School of Social Service Administration, the United Charities, and the Chicago Council of Social Agencies.” (Few Patients of Free Clinics Can Pay Fees. Chicago Daily Tribune, Jan. 27, 1931.) And: Group Health Insurance and Sickness Benefit Plans in Collective Bargaining. Reviewed by Margaret Lovell Plumley. Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1946 May; 36(5): 555.
Brainard P. Trask’s widow married William Edgar Plumley, Princeton 1876, the oldest son of Rev. Dr. Gardiner Spring Plumley, Yale 1850. On Jan. 1, 1876, Rev. Plumley resigned as pastor of the First Presbyterian Church at Metuchen, N.J., to take charge of the department for clergymen of the Provident Savings Life Assurance Society of New York. His son and Mrs. Trask were married in December. The youngest of his eight children was Alexander Rolston Plumley, born in 1863. (Biographical record of the class of 1850, of Yale college: prepared by the class committee. Yale, 1877.) “Dr. Plumley was very active in the Yale Alumni Association, and many of his classmates attended the funeral. Among them were Ellis H. Roberts, Cyprian S. Brainerd, William Ludden, and Dr. Chapin of the class of ’50, and Horace Barnard of ’49. Judge Effingham Nichols was also present.” (Funeral of Rev. Dr. Plumley. New York Times, Feb. 25, 1894.)
Rev. Plumley performed the ceremony when his daughter, Lillie (Elizabeth Marriner Plumley) married Dr. Alfred N. Phillips of Bridgeport. (Married. New York Times, Jan. 29, 1886.) He was the son of the founder of the Phillips Chemical Co., makers of milk of magnesia. (Dr. Alfred N. Phillips. New York Times, Aug. 2, 1944; Mrs. Alfred Phillips Dies in Darien at 92. New York Times, Oct. 9, 1950.) They were the parents of Rep. Alfred N. Phillips Jr., Yale 1917 [whose single undistinguished term in Congress from 1937 and 1938 included the period when the National Act was passed]. (Alfred Phillips, Stamford Mayor. New York Times, Jan. 19, 1970.)
Alexander Rolston Plumley was the father of anti-smoker insurance executive Harold Ladd Plumley. (Plumley-Phelps. New York Times, Oct. 2, 1928; Obituary. Hartford Courant, Jul. 8, 1949.) H. Ladd Plumley was chairman of the board and president of the State Mutual Life Insurance Company of America, Worcester, Mass., which in 1967 offered the only unconditional discounts for non-smokers. He claimed in a recent report to stockholders, “The growing popularity of State Mutual’s Non-Cigarette Smoker Life Insurance Plan continued unabated.” (Nonsmokers Get Cut on Insurance. By Murray Schumach. New York Times, Aug. 31, 1967.) Dick Wilson of State Mutual was a business crony of Lewis Cullman, brother of Joseph Cullman 3d of Philip Morris. “Dick Wilson of State Mutual and I fell into the habit of traveling up to the outings together, arriving first, and taking a room together. Often, Dick would borrow the private plane favored by his CEO and pick me up at La Guardia on his way to Toronto. (That plane came courtesy of H. Ladd Plumley, a remarkable name that I’ve never forgotten because H. Ladd’s brother, Paul, was one of my masters at Fessenden School.) I would often return the favor by providing Dick with World Series tickets, and from 1954 to 1961 – the years I was at Cullman Bros. – there was but a single October when at least one New York team wasn’t playing in the Series.” (Can’t Take It with You. By Lewis B. Cullman.) State Mutual was the original financier of McDonald’s Corporation in the 1950s. It was then a private firm with about 100 hamburger stands, mostly in the Midwest. State Mutual gave McDonalds’s a $750,000 suborndinated loan in exchange for 150 shares of stock, for which it paid $250. The Paul revere Life insurance Company was similarly involved. McDonald’s shares were split in 1961 so the 150 shares became 150,000. State Mutual sold most of its holdings between 1965 and 1971. (Unorthodoxy Pays Off for State Mutual – Most of the Time. New York Times, Jun. 13, 1971.)
Members of Skull & Bones reincorporated the American Red Cross in 1905. In that year, the Protocols of the Elders of Zion was reportedly first published by the Red Cross press in Tsarskoe Selo, Russia; and in 1917, the Red Cross was the Wall Street vehicle for the Bolshevik Revolution.
Columbia – Presbyterian Medical Center
The Order has dominated the board of trustees from at least 1927 to 1957
Memorial Hospital & Sloan-Kettering Institute
John E. Parsons; B. Brewster Jennings; John Mercer Walker, S&B 1931
Bones Controlled the Surgeon General Reports of 1977-81
John Mercer Pinney, Skull & Bones 1965, continues in an active role in government reports
U.S. Sen. David Lyle Boren, Skull & Bones 1963 (D-OK), introduced an amendment to the defense spending bill to raise the price of cigarettes sold in military commissaries. (Official urges Pentagon to act against smoking. By Walter Pincus, the Washington Post. In: Boston Sunday Globe, Jan. 5, 1986.)
Bones Controls the U.S. Dept. of Justice Tobacco Lawsuit
Associate Attorney General Robert Davis McCallum Jr., Skull & Bones 1968, who has been a crony of President George W. Bush since their Bones days, is No. 3 in the Department of Justice.
The Whitney Family
The Whitney family was involved in the Guaranty Trust and the American Tobacco Company. William Collins Whitney, S&B 1863; his classmate and brother-in-law, Oliver Hazard Payne; Harry Payne Whitney, S&B 1894; William Payne Whitney, S&B 1898
Prescott S. Bush, S&B 1917, and former vice president Richard M. Nixon were on the Advisory Council of the New England Institute for Medical Research in the early 1960s. In 1967, John H. Kreisher, Assistant Director and Research Associate of the NEIMR, joined the Council for Tobacco Research as Associate Scientific Director, under Robert C. Hockett. (Confidential Report. The Council for Tobacco Research – U.S.A. Jan. 27, 1967.) Kreisher was the original CTR contact for Carol J. Henry and Richard E. Kouri, project leaders of the Microbiological Associates mouse inhalation study, in 1971.
Anti-smoking militant Dr. Roger S. Mitchell of Webb-Waring was an author of studies on smoking and lung disease. Alfred Cowles III (S&B 1913), and James Quigg Newton Jr. (S&B 1933) were trustees of the Institute. It began sponsoring the Aspen Lung Conference in 1957.
Assorted Bonesmen in the Health Establishment
Resolving the Coronary Artery Disease Epidemic Through Plant-Based Nutrition. Esselstyn CB Jr. Prev Cardiol 2001 Autumn;4(4):171-177. Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195. “The world’s advanced countries have easy access to plentiful high-fat food; ironically, it is this rich diet that produces atherosclerosis. In the world’s poorer nations, many people subsist on a primarily plant-based diet, which is far healthier, especially in terms of heart disease. To treat coronary heart disease, a century of scientific investigation has produced a device-driven, risk factor-oriented strategy. Nevertheless, many patients treated with this approach experience progressive disability and death. This strategy is a rear-guard defensive one. In contrast, compelling data from nutritional studies, population surveys, and interventional studies support the effectiveness of a plant-based diet and aggressive lipid lowering to arrest, prevent, and selectively reverse heart disease. In essence, this is an offensive strategy. The single biggest step toward adopting this strategy would be to have United States dietary guidelines support a plant-based diet. An expert committee purged of industrial and political influence is required to assure that science is the basis for dietary recommendations.” [“An expert committee purged of industrial and political influence is required to assure that science is the basis for dietary recommendations,” actually means a stacked deck of CORRUPT HEALTH FASCISTS who will ignore contrary evidence, especially infection.]
He married Ann Crile, the daughter of Dr. George Crile Jr., S&B 1929. (C.B. Esselstyn Jr. Fiance of Ann Crile. New York Times, May 1, 1961.) His brother is Erik Canfield Esselstyn, S&B 1959. (Miss Susan Pomeroy Will Be Wed in June. New York Times, Jan. 17, 1965.) They were divorced, and Erik married the daughter of Rep. Jonathan B. Bingham, S&B 1936. Erik was executive directive director of the Community Health Center in Detroit, according to the Times, or Boston, according to the Post. (June M. Bingham Engaged to Wed Erik C. Esselstyn. New York Times, Apr. 23, 1967; Marriage Announcement. Washington Post-Times Herald, Apr. 23, 1967.) Their sister Sarah Vosburgh Esselstyn is a physician as well. Her husband was a Clinical Associate of the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases. (Weddings. Sarah V. Esselstyn – Ralph R. Howell. Washington Post, Times, Herald, Nov. 21, 1960.)
Their physician-father was Caldwell B. Esselstyn, Elihu 1925. (Yale Societies Hold Their Annual Tap Day. New York Times, May 16, 1924.) He was the doctor of baseball player Lou Gehrig, and later, the front man for the Physicians Committee for Health Care for the Aged Through Social Security, which lobbied for Medicare, the government program that made cardiologists rich. It was the single largest cause of the dramatic increase in health care costs which began in 1965. Their grandfather, attorney Everett James Esselstyn, was counsel for the executors and an executor of the will of George A. Helme, former president of the George W. Helme Tobacco Company, along with his widow and son, James B. Helme, and the Central Union Trust Company. (Helme Will Aids Midtown Hospital. New York Times, May 6, 1931; G.A. Helme’s Estate is Put at $4,652,401. New York Times, Aug. 8, 1935.) Everett J. Esselstyn was a pallbearer at the funeral of Gilbert Colgate, Yale 1883, former president of Colgate & Co. and a director of the Colgate-Palmolive-Peet Company, along with Lawrence Clerc Deming, Lord Butler Hillard, and Horace Dutton Taft, all S&B 1883. (Gilbert Colgate Dies At Age of 74. New York Times, Jan. 6, 1933; Throng At Funeral of Gilbert Colgate. New York Times, Jan. 8, 1933.) Everett James Esselstyn was a vice president of the New York Bible Society from at least 1905 to 1933 (Christian Activities in New York. New York Observer and Chronicle, Dec. 14, 1905; Gives 802,563 Bibles. New York Times, Jan. 18, 1933; et al.) He was an 1883 graduate of Yale. (Everett J. Esselstyn. New York Times, Jan. 6, 1938; Bulletin of Yale Universary. Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Year 1937-1938, pp. 33-34.)
Alan Whittemore Cross is a member of the same Bones class as John Forbes Kerry and his campaign advisor, David Hoadley Thorne. He is director of the Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, “one of 26 prevention research centers funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.” In 1989, as president of the Association of Teachers of Preventive Medicine, he was a member of the US Department of Health and Human Services Secretary James B. Wyngaarden‘s Council on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention in 1989, along with anti-smoking warhorses Theodore Cooper, former Director of the National Heart and Lung Institute, later CEO of Upjohn; former Assistant Secretary for Health Philip R. Lee; former Surgeon General Julius B. Richmond; and Robert Rodale, Chairman of Rodale Press.
Joint appointment: Professor, Social Medicine and Pediatrics, and Clinical Professor of Maternal and Child Health. Although nominally a pediatrician, his research is primarily oriented toward analyzing the success of health fascist group behavior control programs.
Besides the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, he has been supported by Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina and the University of North Carolina Health Initiative.
Alan W. Cross is the son of Dr. and Mrs. Richard J. Cross [Richard James Cross, Skull & Bones 1937] of Princeton, NJ. His father was associate dean of the Rutgers University School of Medicine (Lee-Cross. New York Times, Sep 6, 1938). His uncle was William R. Cross Jr., Skull & Bones 1941, who was a senior vice president of the Morgan Guaranty Trust and a director of The New York Times Company from 1973 to 1992. Alan W. Cross is the grandson of W. Redmond Cross [William Redmond Cross, Skull & Bones 1896]. W. Redmond Cross and his father, Richard J. Cross, were partners of Morton, Rose & Co. of London, England, and of Morton, Bliss & Company at the time that it was reorganized into the Morton Trust Company, which subsequently merged with the Guaranty Trust. (Morton, Bliss & Co. Changes. New York Times, Jun 3, 1899) W. Redmond Cross was a vice president 1919-22 and the chairman of the United States Radium Corporation of New York from 1922 to 1930. (Radium Concern Re-elects Roeder. New York Times, Jan 13, 1922.) John W. Cross, S&B 1900, an architect who designed buildings for the Guaranty Trust, was his brother. (John W. Cross, 73, Architect, Is Dead. New York Times, Jul. 26, 1951; W. Redmond Cross. New York Times, Nov. 17, 1940; Bulletin of Yale University, Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased during the Year 1940-1941 pp 69-70; Bulletin of Yale University, Obituary Record of Graduates of the Undergraduate Schools Deceased during the Year 1951-1952, p. 44.) Alan W. Cross’s wife’s father, Bernhard W. Johnson, was sales personnel manager at Time Inc. (Miss Marion Morgan Johnson is Betrothed to Alan W. Cross. New York Times, Dec. 22, 1967; Marion M. Johnson Is Married To Alan W. Cross, Yale Alumnus. New York Times, Sep 1, 1968.)
Richard James Cross, Skull & Bones 1937 was director of the human sexuality course at Rutgers Medical School. (Sexual Healing. By Barbara Iozzia. UMDNJ Magazine, Winter 1998.) Dr. Richard J. Cross was best man for his brother, Thomas Newbold Cross, when he married Patricia Geer Townsend, daughter of Howard Townsend. Dr. J. Howland Auchincloss was an usher. (Miss P.G. Townsend Wed to T.N. Cross. New York Times, Mar. 23, 1946.)
David Saffen, Skull & Bones 1975
David Saffen Ph.D. Associate Professor in Departments of Pharmacology and Psychiatry; Associate Director of OSU Program in Pharmacogenomics. Current research: Identifying genes to be targeted by antipsychotic drugs.
“O’Keefe maintains an active clinical orthopaedic practice, while directing an expansive portfolio of research projects; his NIH grant support has consistently placed him among the most highly funded orthopaedic surgeon-clinician scientists in the United States. Author of more than 140 journal articles and numerous book chapters, O’Keefe also is very involved with national orthopaedic organizations, serving in leadership roles in many instances…. The Center recently landed a $1.4 million grant from the Department of Defense to fund studies that will uncover new information concerning the effects of nicotine on the healing of bone fractures.” Vital Signs. University of Rochester Medical Center, Nov. 2005; Regis J. O’Keefe. University of Rochester, Oct. 5, 2005.)
Regis O’Keefe graduated from high school in Pittsburgh, and got his Yale B.A. in religion and philosophical studies. His bride, Carol Lee Gabardine, had a Yale B.A. in economics and political science. (Gabardine, O’Keefe. Annapolis, MD: The Capital, Sep. 1, 1983.)
O’Keefe lies that “Our results provide the first evidence that BaP prevents stem cells from becoming cartilage cells as part of healing. These findings extend our understanding of the impact of cigarette smoke on a process that is critical to fracture repair. Perhaps down the road we will be able to speed bone healing among smokers in more than one way.” His blather was presented at the annual meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, not in a journal, although we have no reason to expect anything better of those corrupt lackies, either. (Toxins in cigarette smoke prevent stem cells from becoming cartilage. EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS, Mar. 4, 2008.)
Except it just so happens that for benzo[a]pyrene, which is one of the common polycyclic hydrocarbons produced by combustion, “[T]he food chain is the dominant pathway of human exposure, accounting for about 97% of the total daily intake of BaP. Inhalation and consumption of contaminated water are only minor pathways of human exposure [2% from air, and 1% from water]. The long-term average daily intake of BaP by the general population is estimated to be 2.2 micrograms (ug) per day. Cigarette smoking and indoor activities do not substantially increase human exposure to BaP relative to background levels of BaP present in the environment.” And, “[A]verage smokers (i.e., individuals who smoke 20 cigarettes a day) are taking in an additional 780 ng of BaP daily, which means that smokers get an additional 16% BaP from smoking” [based on pre-1979 cigarettes, which contained about twice the quantity of BaP as newer low-tar cigarettes]. Also, the exposure from cooked beef (0.2 -24.1 ug/kg) is less than the exposure from leafy vegetables (7.0 – 48 ug/kg). (Benzo-a-pyrene: Environmental partitioning and human exposure. H.A. Hattemer-Frey, C.C. Travis. Toxicology and Industrial Health 1991;7(3):141-157.)